1. Intestinal loss, 1 - (F(obs)/f(H)), is the missing fraction of the dose that is unexplained by systemic clearance. Here, we investigated whether intestinal loss in rat is predictive for human, and whether intestinal metabolism explained observed differences between rat and human.
2. For 81 marketed drugs, human and rat intestinal loss values were calculated from the literature and in-house sources. To examine the contribution of intestinal cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism to the high observed intestinal loss in the rat, metabolism was determined in rat and human intestinal microsomes for 15 compounds.
3. Oral bioavailability poorly correlated between rat and human. Twenty-two compounds in the human and 47 compounds in the rat showed an intestinal loss of more than 20%. The intestinal availability for many compounds was higher in human than in rat. Selected compounds, however, were more stable in rat than in human intestinal microsomes.
4. The rat poorly predicts the risk for intestinal loss in human; many compounds in rat had lower bioavailability than anticipated based on the hepatic clearance, but demonstrated little intestinal loss in human. This discrepancy appeared not to be caused by a higher cytochrome P450-mediated intestinal metabolism in the rat.
2013. Vol. 43, no 7, 607-616 p.