uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Circadian regulation of melanization and prokineticin homologues is conserved in the brain of freshwater crayfish and zebrafish
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. (Söderhäll)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. (Söderhäll)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. (Winberg)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. (Söderhäll)
2013 (English)In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 40, no 2, 218-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Circadian clock is important to living organisms to adjust to the external environment. This clock has been extensively studied in mammals, and prokineticin 2 (Prok2) acts as one of the messenger between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. In this study, expression profiles of Prok1 and Prok2 were investigated in a non-mammalian vertebrate brain, zebrafish, and the expression was compared to the Prok homologues, astakines (Ast1 and Ast2) in crayfish. These transcripts exhibited circadian oscillation in the brain, and Ast1 had similar pattern to Prok2. In addition, the expression of tyrosinase, an enzyme which expression is regulated by E-box elements like in Prok2, was also examined in zebrafish brain and was compared with the expression of prophenoloxidase (proPO), the melanization enzyme, in crayfish brain. Interestingly, the expressions of both Tyr and proPO displayed circadian rhythm in a similar pattern to Prok2 and Ast1, respectively. Therefore, this study shows that circadian oscillation of prokineticin homologues and enzymes involved in melanization are conserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 40, no 2, 218-226 p.
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197592DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2013.03.002ISI: 000320491100016PubMedID: 23500514OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-197592DiVA: diva2:613608
Swedish Research Council, 2011-4797

De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2013-03-29 Created: 2013-03-29 Last updated: 2013-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Melanization and Hemocyte Homeostasis  in the Freshwater Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Melanization and Hemocyte Homeostasis  in the Freshwater Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Blood cells or hemocytes play important roles in immunity. They are a major source of many immune-related molecules such as antibodies in adaptive immunity of vertebrates and prophenoloxidase (proPO) in invertebrates. In the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, the proPO-system has been reported to be an important component of immune responses against microorganisms. In this study, several mutant strains of Aeromonas hydrophila were used to reveal that LPS (lipopolysaccharide) is an important factor for the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila, strongly inducing the proPO system and melanization. This proPO activating system is a multistep process, which has to be tightly controlled to avoid the harmful side effects of toxic intermediates. Many regulating factors have been reported to fine-tune the proPO-system. In this study, the cleavage of caspase-1-like activity was shown to be a novel negative regulator of PO activity in crayfish. Moreover, the fragments obtained by cleavage of proPO by the proPO-activating enzyme and caspase-1-like protein increased bacterial clearance. Thus, the peptides generated also have important biological functions.

In addition to being a source of immune proteins, hemocytes also participate in phagocytosis, encapsulation, and nodulation. An infection normally causes a reduction of hemocyte numbers. Consequently, hemocyte homeostasis is important for maintaining appropriate hemocyte numbers in the circulation of the animal. This study shows that the reactive oxygen species level in the anterior proliferation center of crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT), together with cell proliferation, was increased during infection. Pl-β-thymosins were proposed to be involved in hemocyte homeostasis by increasing stem cell migration and thus increasing the circulating hemocyte number. Crayfish hemocyte numbers, as well astakine (Ast1 and Ast2) expression in hemocytes and HPT, were previously shown to be under circadian regulation. Here, we show that Ast1, Ast2, and proPO exhibit rhythmic expression in the crayfish brain similarly to their orthologs, prokineticin 1, prokineticin 2 and tyrosinase, respectively, in the zebrafish brain. Tyrosinase expression was detected in zebrafish brain cells while PO-positive cells were identified as hemocytes that had infiltrated into the crayfish brain. Therefore, this information suggests a close relationship between crayfish hemocytes and the crayfish brain as well as vertebrate neurons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 48 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1086
melanization, prophenoloxidase, caspase, hematopoiesis, thymosin, astakine, circadian rhythm, reactive oxygen species, tyrosinase, prokineticin
National Category
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209209 (URN)978-91-554-8774-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-28, Lindahlssalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-10-15 Last updated: 2016-05-09

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Noonin, ChadanatWatthanasurorot, ApiruckWinberg, SvanteSöderhäll, Irene
By organisation
Comparative PhysiologyPhysiology
In the same journal
Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Evolutionary Biology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 305 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link