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Magma-Crust Interaction at Subduction Zone Volcanoes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology. (CEMPEG)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work is magma-crust interaction processes and associated crustal volatile release in subduction zone volcanoes, drawing on rock, mineral, and gas geochemistry as well as experimental petrology. Understanding the multitude of differentiation processes that modify an original magma during ascent to the surface is vital to unravel the contributions of the various sources that contribute to the final magmas erupted at volcanoes. In particular, magma-crust interaction (MCI) processes have been investigated at a variety of scales, from a local scale in the Vesuvius, Merapi, and Kelut studies, to a regional scale, in the Java to Bali segment of the Sunda Arc.

 The role of crustal influences is still not well constrained in subduction systems, particulary in terms of the compositional impact of direct magma crust interplay. To address this shortcoming, we studied marble and calc-silicate (skarn) xenoliths, and used high resolution short timescale experimental petrology at Vesuvius volcano. The marbles and calc-silicates help to identify different mechanisms of magma-carbonate and magma-xenolith interaction, and the subsequent effects of volatile release on potential eruptive behaviour, while sequential short-duration experiments simulate the actual processes of carbonate assimilation employing natural materials and controlled magmatic conditions. The experiments highlight the efficiency of carbonate assimilation and associated carbonate-derived CO2 liberated over short timescales.

The findings at Merapi and Kelut demonstrate a complex magmatic plumbing system underneath these volcanoes with magma residing at different depths, spanning from the mantle-crust boundary to the upper crust. The erupted products and volcanic gas emissions enable us to shed light on MCI-processes and associated volatile release in these systems. The knowledge gained from studying individual volcanoes (e.g., Merapi and Kelut) is then tested on a regional scale and applied to the entire Java and Bali arc segment. An attempt is presented to distinguish the extent of source versus crustal influences and establish a quantitative model of late stage crustal influence in this arc segment.

This thesis therefore hopes to contribute to our knowledge of magma genesis and magma-crust interaction (MCI) processes that likely operate in subduction zone systems worldwide.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. , 40 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1037
Keyword [en]
magma-crust interaction, stable isotopes (O-C), radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd-Pb), calc-silicate xenoliths, HP-HT experimental petrology, crustal volatiles, Vesuvius, Merapi, Kelut, the Sunda arc
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198085ISBN: 978-91-554-8648-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-198085DiVA: diva2:615134
Public defence
2013-05-24, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-03 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2013-08-30
List of papers
1. C and O isotopes of marble and skarn xenoliths from Vesuvius, Italy: implications for syn-eruptive CO2 release
Open this publication in new window or tab >>C and O isotopes of marble and skarn xenoliths from Vesuvius, Italy: implications for syn-eruptive CO2 release
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geochemistry Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198037 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2013-08-30
2. Experimental simulation of magma-carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius, Italy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental simulation of magma-carbonate interaction beneath Mt. Vesuvius, Italy
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2012 (English)In: Annual Report 2012, HP-HT Laboratory of experimental Volcanology and Geophysics, 163-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Department of Seismology and Tectonophysics, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 2012
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198050 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved
3. Crustal CO2 liberation during the 2006 eruption and earthquake events at Merapi volcano, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crustal CO2 liberation during the 2006 eruption and earthquake events at Merapi volcano, Indonesia
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2012 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 39, L11302- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-temperature volcanic gas is widely considered to originate from ascending, mantle-derived magma. In volcanic arc systems, crustal inputs to magmatic gases mainly occur via subducted sediments in the mantle source region. Our data from Merapi volcano, Indonesia imply, however, that during the April-October 2006 eruption significant quantities of CO2 were added from shallow crustal sources. We show that prior to the 2006 events, summit fumarole gas delta C-13((CO2)) is virtually constant (delta C-13(1994-2005) = -4.1 +/- 0.3 parts per thousand), but during the 2006 eruption and after the shallow Yogyakarta earthquake of late May, 2006 (M6.4; hypocentres at 10-15 km depth), carbon isotope ratios increased to -2.4 +/- 0.2 parts per thousand. This rise in delta C-13 is consistent with considerable addition of crustal CO2 and coincided with an increase in eruptive intensity by a factor of similar to 3 to 5. We postulate that this shallow crustal volatile input supplemented the mantle-derived volatile flux at Merapi, intensifying and sustaining the 2006 eruption. Late-stage volatile additions from crustal contamination may thus provide a trigger for explosive eruptions independently of conventional magmatic processes.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-176812 (URN)10.1029/2012GL051307 (DOI)000304772800002 ()
Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
4. Magmatic differentiation processes at Merapi Volcano: inclusion petrology and oxygen isotopes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magmatic differentiation processes at Merapi Volcano: inclusion petrology and oxygen isotopes
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 261, no SI, 38-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Indonesian volcano Merapi is one of the most hazardous volcanoes on the planet and is characterised by periods of active dome growth and intermittent explosive events. Merapi currently degasses continuously through high temperature fumaroles and erupts basaltic-andesite dome lavas and associated block-and-ash-flows that carry a large range of magmatic, coarsely crystalline plutonic, and meta-sedimentary inclusions. These inclusions are useful in order to evaluate magmatic processes that act within Merapi's plumbing system, and to help an assessment of which phenomena could trigger explosive eruptions. With the aid of petrological, textural, and oxygen isotope analysis we record a range of processes during crustal magma storage and transport, including mafic recharge, magma mixing, crystal fractionation, and country rock assimilation. Notably, abundant calc-silicate inclusions (true xenoliths) and elevated δ18O values in feldspar phenocrysts from 1994, 1998, 2006, and 2010 Merapi lavas suggest addition of limestone and calc-silicate materials to the Merapi magmas. Together with high δ13C values in fumarole gas, crustal additions to mantle and slab-derived magma and volatile sources are likely a steady state process at Merapi. This late crustal input could well represent an eruption trigger due to sudden over-pressurisation of the shallowest parts of the magma storage system independently of magmatic recharge and crystal fractionation. Limited seismic precursors may be associated with this type of eruption trigger, offering a potential explanation for the sometimes erratic behaviour of Merapi during volcanic crises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Merapi Volcano; Magmatic and crustal inclusions; Oxygen isotopes; Crustal contamination
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Geochemistry
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-188483 (URN)10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.11.001 (DOI)000324154400004 ()
Available from: 2012-12-17 Created: 2012-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia
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2013 (English)In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 166, no 1, 275-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kelut volcano, East Java, is an active volcanic complex hosting a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia’s most destructive lahars. In November 2007, an effusive eruption lasting approximately 7 months led to the formation of a 260-m-high and 400-m-wide lava dome that displaced most of the crater lake. The 2007–2008 Kelut dome comprises crystal-rich basaltic andesite with a texturally complex crystal cargo of strongly zoned and in part resorbed plagioclase (An47–94), orthopyroxene (En64–72, Fs24–32, Wo2–4), clinopyroxene (En40–48, Fs14–19, Wo34–46), Ti-magnetite (Usp16–34) and trace amounts of apatite, as well as ubiquitous glomerocrysts of varying magmatic mineral assemblages. In addition, the notable occurrence of magmatic and crustal xenoliths (meta-basalts, amphibole-bearing cumulates, and skarn-type calc-silicates and meta-volcaniclastic rocks) is a distinct feature of the dome. New petrographical, whole rock major and trace element data, mineral chemistry as well as oxygen isotope data for both whole rocks and minerals indicate a complex regime of magma-mixing, decompression-driven resorption, degassing and crystallisation and crustal assimilation within the Kelut plumbing system prior to extrusion of the dome. Detailed investigation of plagioclase textures alongside crystal size distribution analyses provide evidence for magma mixing as a major pre-eruptive process that blends multiple crystal cargoes together. Distinct magma storage zones are postulated, with a deeper zone at lower crustal levels or near the crust-mantle boundary (>15 km depth), a second zone at mid-crustal levels (~10 km depth) and several magma storage zones distributed throughout the uppermost crust (<10 km depth). Plagioclase-melt and amphibole hygrometry indicate magmatic H2O contents ranging from ~8.1 to 8.6 wt.% in the lower crustal system to ~1.5 to 3.3 wt.% in the mid to upper crust. Pyroxene and plagioclase δ18O values range from 5.4 to 6.7 ‰, and 6.5 to 7.6 ‰, respectively. A single whole rock analysis of the 2007–2008 dome lava gave a δ18O value of 7.6 ‰, whereas meta-basaltic and calc-silicate xenoliths are characterised by δ18O values of 6.2 and 10.3 ‰, respectively. Magmatic δ18O values calculated from individual pyroxene and plagioclase analyses range from 5.7 to 7.0 ‰, and 6.2 to 7.4 ‰, respectively. This range in O-isotopic compositions is explained by crystallisation of pyroxenes in the lower to mid-crust, where crustal contamination is either absent or masked by assimilation of material having similar δ18O values to the ascending melts. This population is mixed with isotopically distinct plagioclase and pyroxenes that crystallised from a more contaminated magma in the upper crustal system. Binary bulk mixing models suggest that shallow-level, recycled volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks together with calc-silicates and/or limestones are the most likely contaminants of the 2007–2008 Kelut magma, with the volcaniclastic sediments being dominant.

Keyword
Kelut volcano, Sunda arc, Lava dome, CSD, Oxygen isotopes, Magma mixing, Crustal contamination, Volcanic hazards
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198047 (URN)10.1007/s00410-013-0875-4 (DOI)000320655900014 ()
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
6. Tracing crustal contamination along the Java-Bali segment of the Sunda Arc
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing crustal contamination along the Java-Bali segment of the Sunda Arc
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geochemistry Geology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198043 (URN)
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2013-08-30
7. Crustal volatile release at Merapi volcano; the 2006 earthquake and eruption events
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Crustal volatile release at Merapi volcano; the 2006 earthquake and eruption events
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2013 (English)In: Geology Today, ISSN 0266-6979, E-ISSN 1365-2451, Vol. 29, no 3, 96-101 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198051 (URN)10.1111/gto.12008 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NB
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Output format
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