A randomized trial of delayed versus early cord clamping: iron status and neurodevelopment at 12 months of age
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Objectives: To investigate effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, as compared to early, on iron status and infant development at 12 months of age.
Study design: Term infants (n = 382) were randomly assigned to delayed (≥180 sec) or early (≤10 sec) umbilical cord clamping. Follow up at 12 months of age included evaluation of iron status (ferritin, transferrin saturation, transferrin receptor, reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent and mean cell volume) and parental assessment of neurodevelopment by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire.
Results: At 12 months 347 infants were assessed. The two randomization groups did not differ in iron status or in neurodevelopment; 13 had iron deficiency and only one infant had iron deficiency anemia. Predictors of ferritin levels were infant sex and ferritin in umbilical cord blood. Predictors of ASQ were infant sex and breastfeeding within one hour after birth. For both outcomes, being a boy was associated with lower results. Interaction analysis showed that delayed cord clamping was associated with a 5 points higher ASQ score among boys, but a 12 points lower score in girls, out of a maximum of 300 points.
Conclusions: Delayed cord clamping increases neonatal hemoglobin levels and improves iron status at four months of age, but does not affect ferritin levels or neurodevelopment assessed by ASQ in a selected population of healthy term born infants. However, minor effects on neurodevelopment may not be possible to demonstrate with the size of the study population and the chosen method for assessment. The current data indicate that effects of delayed cord clamping may differ according to infant sex and that boys may benefit more from delayed cord clamping than girls.
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject Pediatrics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198166OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-198166DiVA: diva2:615346