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The Gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) as an Environmental Bioindicator and Reservoir for Antibiotic Resistance on the Coastlines of the Bay of Bengal
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. (Björn Olsen)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
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2014 (English)In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 20, no 5, 466-471 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence and frequency of multiresistant bacteria in wild birds act as indicators of the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance. To explore the rate of contamination mediated by Escherichia coli, 150 fecal samples from the brown-headed gull (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus) and 8 water samples from the Bay of Bengal area were collected, cultured, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Special attention was paid to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically. Antibiotic resistance was found in 42.3% (36/85) of the E. coli isolates and multidrug resistance in 11.8%. Isolates from the area with a higher human activity were more resistant than those from an area with a lower level of activity. Most frequent was resistance to ampicillin (29.4%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24.7%) and quinolones (22.4%). Carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high (17.3%) in the gulls, whereas no ESBL producers were found in the water. All ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, but one, carried blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-15-like genes. A blaCTX-M-14-like enzyme was found as an exception. Gulls from two different colonies shared E. coli clones and harbored the clinically relevant sequence types ST10, ST48, and ST131. The high frequency of antibiotic resistance and ESBL production among E. coli isolates from gulls indicates that the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance has already gone far on the coastlines of the Bay of Bengal. Considering the limited control over the antibiotic consumption and waste from human activities in Bangladesh, there is no easy solution in sight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 20, no 5, 466-471 p.
Keyword [en]
Brown-headed gull, E. coli, antibiotic resistance, blaCTX-M-15, ESBL.
National Category
Veterinary Science Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Infectious Diseases; Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199626DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2013.0233ISI: 000342303200014PubMedID: 24786256OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-199626DiVA: diva2:620607
Funder
Formas
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Birds in Bangladesh
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial Resistance and Production of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae from Birds in Bangladesh
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The dissemination of members of the Enterobacteriaceae family with extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) has become a global concern. ESBLs and MBLs have been reported in humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the environment, and their isolation frequencies are increasing rapidly worldwide.  Most studies have been performed in developed countries and quite few in developing countries, where the antibiotic consumption is often poorly controlled. To explore the environmental contamination of antibiotic resistance in Bangladesh, and of ESBLs and MBLs in particular, fecal samples from poultry and wild birds were studied in this thesis.

Samples were collected from both sick birds (poultry having Escherichia coli infections) and healthy birds (free-range poultry, seagulls and crows) residing in different environmental niches. Samples from patients and fresh/sea water were included, to follow the chain of antibiotic resistance in bacteria from humans to the environment. Information regarding the antibiotic usage in poultry production was also collected. The susceptibility of avian E. coli isolates cultured with and without selective pressure was tested against antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine in Bangladesh. Special attention was paid to ESBL-producing isolates, which were further characterized genetically.

The results of the studies showed that E. coli isolates from commercial poultry, free-range poultry, gulls and crows were resistant to several classes of antibiotics, and that the level and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varied between different bird populations. There was no NDM-producer found among the birds, but ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae could be found in up to 59% of the crows, the birds with the highest carriage rate of multiresistant  Enterobacteriaceae of all bird species studied. The most common ESBL-type was CTX-M-15, which also is the most common in the human population in Bangladesh. Birds also shared clinically important sequence types with humans, including E. coli clone O25b-ST131.

In conclusion, ESBL-producing bacteria with multiresistance are easily spread to wild birds. Their opportunistic feeding behavior at poorly managed hospital waste dumps and nearby water bodies makes them into both reservoirs and active spreaders. The high level of antibiotic resistant and ESBL-producing bacteria in the bird population of Bangladesh is worrying, and there is no easy solution in sight. Nationwide programs are necessary to both improve the management of hospital waste and sewage and the control of the antibiotic usage to prevent further environmental contamination. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 75 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 911
Keyword
Antimicrobial Resistance, ESBL, CTX-M, NDM, Poultry, Wild birds, E. coli, Bangladesh, Enterobacteriaceae, Antibiotics
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Epidemiology; Microbiology; Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199686 (URN)978-91-554-8691-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-12, Hörsalen, Klinisk mikrobiologi, Dag Hammarskjöldsväg 17 ingång D1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

Time of defence has been changed to 09:00 am on 2013-05-27

Available from: 2013-05-22 Created: 2013-05-13 Last updated: 2013-08-30

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Hasan, BadrulMelhus, ÅsaSandegren, LinusOlsen, Björn

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Clinical Microbiology and Infectious MedicineDepartment of Medical Biochemistry and MicrobiologyInfectious Diseases
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