Early vertebrate origin of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs)
2013 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 188, 123-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) accessory proteins, MRAP, along with its homolog, MRAP2, are two among a growing number of G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins that have been identified in recent years. These proteins interact directly with MC2R and are essential for trafficking of this receptor from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, where it mediates the effects of ACTH. lthough earlier studies have identified MRAP and MRAP2 subtypes in distant species, an overall evolutionary analysis of these families is still missing. Here, we performed a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the MRAP and MRAP2 homologs based on whole genome sequences. We systematically mined and analyzed the genomes of metazoans to identify these genes. Overall, we identified 70 sequences of MRAP and MRAP2 from 44 species belonging to several vertebrate lineages, including at least 40 new sequences previously not reported in the literature. Herein, we provide evidence that MRAP2 is likely to be the ancestor of the MRAP family because MRAP2-like protein, but not MRAP, was identified in Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey), which belong to an ancient basal vertebrate lineage. Later in vertebrate evolution, MRAP2 duplicated and gave rise to MRAP in an event before the emergence of actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes). However, we observed losses of MRAP in sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish), amphibians and reptiles while both subtypes are present in chicken and most mammals studied. Synteny analysis showed a conserved synteny within same lineages and an inversion of gene order between lineages. An evolutionary rate shift analysis indicated that these genes were under high purifying selection. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the evolution and gene repertoire of MRAP and MRAP2.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 188, 123-132 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-199771DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.01.004ISI: 000320746000017PubMedID: 23370304OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-199771DiVA: diva2:621143