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Evaluation of Rural Sanitation Alternatives in Nepal Using Decision Support System (DSS) Approach
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
2013 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

A society´s health depends on the access to proper and hygiene sanitation. Half of the population still do not have access to proper sanitation in Nepal; therefore government and non-government organizations are facilitating sanitation access to all the population. Decades ago, open defecation and pit latrines toilet were the only options as sanitation system to the people. But now, various types of toilets system known as dry toilets, septic tanks, centralized sewerage system and biogas integrated toilets are available. Therefore, existing toilet system in rural areas of Nepal needs to be evaluated with respect to environment and long term sustainability. Aim of this study is to find the appropriate toilet system for rural areas of Nepal. This study also discusses how that appropriate toilet system can be promoted based on current scenarios from government level to local level.

Generic Multi-Attribute Analysis (GMAA) is used as a decision support tools to evaluate available various toilet alternatives. For which a rural area from Nepal is chosen as study area. GMAA helps in evaluating all the toilet system based on social, technological, environmental and economical aspects. Interpretation between the toilet systems can be made easily with the help of GMAA results. Field questionnaire survey was also carried out in the study area to know user´s understanding of toilet alternatives.

Every toilet systems have pro and cons based on different social, technological, environmental and economical aspects. It was found that pit latrines toilet systems are mostly practiced in the rural areas of Nepal. User prefers pit latrines because of its social accepted character and technologically easy in using it. Biogas integrated toilet system came as optimal toilet system though not accessible to all household. It was found that urine and faeces separating toilets are environmentally and economically beneficial. The thesis concludes that appropriate toilet system which is sustainable must be promoted while increasing toilet coverage in Nepal. Urine and faeces separating toilet is found to be appropriate and need to be incorporated in the government goal of increasing toilet coverage. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 46 p.
Examensarbete vid Institutionen för geovetenskaper, ISSN 1650-6553 ; 126
Keyword [en]
sanitation alternatives, conventional toilets, Nepal, sustainable toilet system, urine separating dry toilet
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200181OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-200181DiVA: diva2:622437
External cooperation
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Western Nepal (RWSSP-WN)
Subject / course
Sustainable development
Educational program
Master Programme in Sustainable Development
Available from: 2013-05-24 Created: 2013-05-21 Last updated: 2013-05-24Bibliographically approved

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