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Constructing Soldiers from Boys in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1314-2943
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Internationell sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa/Larsson)
2013 (English)In: Men and Masculinities, ISSN 1097-184X, E-ISSN 1552-6828, Vol. 16, no 2, 203-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is part of an ethnography focusing on war rape in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo where child soldiers are both victims and perpetrators of violence. Twelve ex-child soldier boys, aged thirteen to eighteen years, from a reintegration facility were interviewed about their soldiering experiences and their perspectives on sexual violence. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Conceptual frameworks of militarized masculine identity and gender-based violence guided the process. Results revealed the systematic and violent construction of children into soldiers, inculcating a "militarized masculinity"; a rigid set of stereotypical hypermasculinized behaviors promoting dominance by violating, sexually and otherwise, the subordinate "other." This was achieved through terrorizing/coercing, use of indigenous preparations, substance abuse, and forbidden reflection. This article presents a more contextualized complex view of the violent perpetrator whose behaviors are a manifestation of the modes and mechanisms in which society has constructed/reconstructed gender, ethnicity, and class, and the power dynamics therein.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 16, no 2, 203-227 p.
Keyword [en]
sub-Saharan Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), ethnography, child soldiers, militarized masculinity, sexual violence, war, gender
National Category
Social Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202911DOI: 10.1177/1097184X12470113ISI: 000319223300004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-202911DiVA: diva2:634581
Conference
Conference on In Relation to What - Critical Gender Studies on Masculinities and Relationality, 18-20 JAN, 2012, Uppsala, SWEDEN
Available from: 2013-07-01 Created: 2013-07-01 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Women Survivors, Lost Children and Traumatized Masculinities: The Phenomena of Rape and War in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women Survivors, Lost Children and Traumatized Masculinities: The Phenomena of Rape and War in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to investigate the phenomenon of war rape in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to understand the dynamics, contextual realities and consequences of its perpetration. Practical and theoretical knowledge is generated which is relevant for health care interventions, humanitarian assistance and peace initiatives, that are cognizant of the actual needs of the affected populations.

The study employed ethnographic methodology involving prolonged engagement with the field, participant observation, formal and informal interviews, keeping of field notes and the continuous practice of reflexivity. The four papers in this thesis represent formal interviews with participants from three distinct groups: local leaders (Paper I), ex-child soldier boys (Paper II) and women survivors of sexual violence (Paper III & IV).

Qualitative Content Analysis was used for the interview study with local leaders (Paper I). Findings from this study reveal how mass rape and the methods of perpetration create a chaos effectively destroying communities. The leaders draw attention to the fact that an exclusive focus on raped women misses other structural factors that contribute to war and sexual violence, factors such as the global political economy, international apathy, the stance of the church, effects of militarization, inappropriate aid and interpretations of gender roles.

Through the theoretical lenses of militarised masculinity and gender based violence, interviews with ex-child soldier boys, seen as both victims of war as well as proxy perpetrators of sexual violence, were analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed the systematic and violent construction of children into soldiers, inculcating a rigid set of stereotypical hyper-masculine behaviors promoting dominance by violating the subordinate “other”. These findings argue for a more complex, contextualized view of the perpetrator resulting from the ways society has (re)constructed gender, ethnicity and class.

Papers III and IV reflect the interviews and narratives provided by women survivors. Guided by thematic analysis and a matrix of theories: Structural violence, Intersectionality and “new wars”; Paper III bears witness to the women’s expressions of their profound losses and dispossession as they struggle to survive stigmatization in the impoverished margins of the warzone, along with children born of rape. The perpetrator is cited here as well as by the leaders as predominantly Interhamwe. Payne’s Sites of Resilience model used in Paper IV situates stigmatized women survivors suffering in a global context as they navigate survival, demonstrating resilience in the margins through support from their faith in God, scarce health services, indigenous healing and strategic alliances. Findings suggest that collaborations of existing strengthened networks, ie: the church, healthcare and indigenous healers, could extend the reach of sustainable and holistic support services, positively effecting already identified sites of resilience.

Findings draw attention to the challenges faced by public health in addressing mass trauma. Women’s raped bodies represent tangible material damage, embedded in a matrix of globalization processes and structural violence involving gender, ethnicity and class. This requires serious reflection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 80 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 920
Keyword
Democratic Republic of Congo, war-rape, sexual violence, ethnography, child soldiers, gender, resilience, marginalisation, structural violence, intersectionality, new wars, militarised masculinity, Africa, globalisation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences
Research subject
Health Care Research; Caring Sciences in Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204430 (URN)978-91-554-8711-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-09-19, IX, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2014-01-07

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Trenholm, JillOlsson, PiaBlomqvist, MarthaAhlberg, Beth Maina

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