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Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 25, 41-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10-15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places higher demands on the longevity of the implants. A wear resistant configuration with wear particles that resorb in vivo can potentially increase the lifetime of an implant. In this study, silicon nitride (SixNy) and silicon carbon nitride (SixCyNz) coatings were produced for this purpose using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings are intended for hard bearing surfaces on implants. Hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings were evaluated by nanoindentation, cohesive, and adhesive properties were assessed by micro-scratching and the tribological performance was investigated in a ball-on-disc setup run in a serum solution. The majority of the SixNy coatings showed a hardness close to that of sintered silicon nitride (similar to 18 GPa), and an elastic modulus close to that of cobalt chromium (similar to 200 GPa). Furthermore, all except one of the SixNy coatings offered a wear resistance similar to that of bulk silicon nitride and significantly higher than that of cobalt chromium. In contrast, the SixCyNz coatings did not show as high level of wear resistance. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 25, 41-47 p.
Keyword [en]
Silicon nitride, Silicon carbon nitride, Coatings, Total joint replacements, Biotribology
National Category
Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-204818DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.05.002ISI: 000321469300005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-204818DiVA: diva2:640376
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Silicon nitride for total hip replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon nitride for total hip replacements
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For more than 50 years total hip replacements have been a common and successful procedure to increase patient mobility and quality of life. The 10-year implant survival rate is 97.8%. However, for longer implantation times there are limitations linked to the negative biological response to wear and corrosion products from the currently used biomaterials.

In this thesis silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings were evaluated for use in total hip replacements, on the articulating bearing surface and modular taper connections. Homogeneous, dense SiNx coatings were deposited using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) up to a thickness of 8 µm. The N/Si atomic ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 and the coatings showed a low surface roughness. The wear rate of a SiNx coated cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) was similar to that of bulk Si3N4, and less than one 46th of uncoated CoCrMo, an alloy that is commonly used in joint replacements. Wear debris generated from SiNx coatings was round in shape, with a mean size of 40 nm, and ranged between 10 and 500 nm. Model particles, similar in size and shape as the wear debris, were soluble in simulated body fluid. The dissolution rate was higher than the expected rate of debris generation. Along with the size of the debris, which is not in the critical range for macrophage activation, this dissolution may limit negative biological reactions. The SiNx coatings also dissolved in simulated body fluid. The coating with the highest N/Si ratio exhibited the lowest dissolution rate, of 0.2 to 0.4 nm/day, while CoCrMo under the same condition dissolved at a rate of 0.7 to 1.2 nm/day. SiNx-coated CoCrMo exhibited a reduced release of Co, Cr and Mo ions into the solution by two orders of magnitude, compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Si3N4 evaluated under micro-displacement in a corrosive environment, replicating the modular taper, showed a lower corrosion current compared to common biomedical alloys. SiNx coatings may also act beneficially to reduce issues associated with this type of contact.

SiNx coatings have shown several properties in a laboratory environment that are hypothesised to increase the longevity of joint replacements. The promising results encourage further evaluation closer to the clinical application of total hip replacements, in particular in the articulating bearing surface and in modular tapers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 53 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1242
Keyword
SiNx, Si3N4, coatings, CoCr, Ti, alloy, tribology, wear, corrosion, dissolution, debris, hip, arthroplasty
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247800 (URN)978-91-554-9211-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477
Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2015-07-07

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Pettersson, MariaJacobson, StaffanEngqvist, HåkanPersson, Cecilia

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