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Bipolar electrochemistry for high-throughput corrosion screening
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9292-016X
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2013 (English)In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 34, 274-277 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is demonstrated that bipolar electrochemistry can be used for high-throughput corrosion testing covering a wide potential range in one single experiment and that this, combined with rapid image analysis, constitutes a simple and convenient way to screen the corrosion behaviour of conducting materials and corrosion protective coatings. Stainless steel samples (SS304), acting as bipolar electrodes, were immersed in sulphuric and hydrochloric acid and exposed to an electric field to establish a potential gradient along the surface. In this way, the same steel sample was exposed to a wide range of cathodic and anodic conditions, ranging from potentials yielding hydrogen evolution to potentials well into the transpassive region. This wireless approach enables rapid simultaneous comparison of numerous samples, and also provides the opportunity to perform experiments on samples that are of a complex shape, or which otherwise are difficult to employ in standard electrochemical corrosion tests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 34, 274-277 p.
Keyword [en]
Bipolar electrochemistry, Corrosion, Stainless steel, Screening, Image analysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205921DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2013.07.011ISI: 000324963900070OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-205921DiVA: diva2:643057
Note

Highlights

• Bipolar electrochemistry for high-throughput corrosion screening

• Simultaneous evaluation of anodic and cathodic conditions on single samples

• Wireless production of corrosion gradients on stainless steel and image analysis

• Comparison of the bipolar approach with conventional three-electrode experiments

Available from: 2013-08-25 Created: 2013-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Corrosion and Surface Studies of Stainless Steel and Chromium Carbide Thin-Films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrosion and Surface Studies of Stainless Steel and Chromium Carbide Thin-Films
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Although the passive films that form on stainless steels have been extensively studied, the concentration depth profiles are not fully understood. Their thinness makes passive films hard to study, but angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is a non-destructive technique that can be used to obtain depth information. An iterative approach to deconvolute ARXPS measurements into depth profiles is discussed, and the chemistry of passive films on a molybdenum-containing 316L stainless steel is investigated. Bipolar electrochemistry, in which the sample is placed along an electric field created by two driving electrodes in an electrolyte, is investigated as a screening tool. It is shown that the method is useful to create corrosion gradients on 304 stainless steel, both under pitting and non-pitting conditions. Chromium carbide thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering with a variety of deposition parameters on stainless steel, and subsequently analyzed. It is shown that these films present a promising material system for protective coatings to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steels while also maintaining other useful properties, such as low interfacial contact resistance. Particular attention is given to the electrochemical evaluation of the films, whose high carbon concentrations necessitates different interpretations of the electrochemical results compared to for stainless steels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 66 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1082
Keyword
corrosion, electrochemistry, thin film, stainless steel, passive film, chromium carbide, carbon oxidation, surface, depth profile, XPS, SEM, EQCM, sputtering
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208410 (URN)978-91-554-8766-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-11-08, Ångström 2001, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-18 Created: 2013-09-30 Last updated: 2017-01-20
2. Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bipolar electrochemistry for high throughput screening applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bipolar electrochemistry is an interesting concept for high throughput screening techniques due to the ability to induce gradients in a range of materials and their properties, such as composition, particle size, or dopant levels, among many others. One of the key advantages of the method is the ability to test, create or modify materials without the need for a direct electrical connection. In this thesis, the viability of this method has been explored for a range of possible applications, such as metal recycling, nanoparticle modification and corrosion analysis.

In the initial part of the work a process to electrodeposit gradients in metal composition was evaluated, with a view to applying the technique to the extraction and recycling of metals from fly ash. Compositional gradients in the metals under study could be readily obtained from controlled reference solutions, although the spatial resolution of the metals was not sufficient to perform separation. Only copper could be easily deposited from the fly ash solution.

Bipolar electrodeposition was also successfully used to modify the particle size across substrates decorated with gold nanoparticles. The approach was demonstrated both for surfaces possessing either a uniform particle density or a gradient in particle density. In the latter case samples with simultaneous, orthogonal gradients in both particle size and density were obtained.

A combination of the bipolar approach with rapid image analysis was also evaluated as a method for corrosion screening, using quantitative analysis of gradients in pitting corrosion damage on stainless steels in HCl as a model system. The factors affecting gradient formation and the initiation of corrosion were thoroughly investigated by the use of a scanning droplet cell (SDC) technique and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The ability to screen arrays of different materials for corrosion properties was also investigated, and demonstrated for stainless steel and Ti-Al alloys with pre-formed compositional gradients. The technique shows much promise for further studies and for high throughput corrosion screening applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 77 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1348
Keyword
bipolar electrochemistry, electrodeposition, corrosion, screening, gradients, recycling, gold nanoparticles, Scanning Droplet Cell, Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, pitting corrosion
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277937 (URN)978-91-554-9491-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-15, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2016-04-04

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Munktell, SaraHögström, JonasNyholm, LeifBjörefors, Fredrik

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