uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Show others and affiliations
2013 (English)In: Steroids, ISSN 0039-128X, E-ISSN 1878-5867, Vol. 78, no 12-13, 1192-1199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17- hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. controls, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 78, no 12-13, 1192-1199 p.
Keyword [en]
Growth hormone, anabolic androgenic steroids, testosterone, androstenedione
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205915DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2013.08.012ISI: 000327287800006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-205915DiVA: diva2:643367
Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-25 Last updated: 2014-10-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Growth Hormone and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Effects on Neurochemistry and Cognition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth Hormone and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Effects on Neurochemistry and Cognition
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth and metabolism but also displays profound effects on the central nervous system (CNS). GH affects neurogenesis and neuroprotection, and has been shown to counteract drug-induced apoptosis in the brain. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), mainly abused for their anabolic and performance-enhancing properties, can cause several adverse effects, such as cardiovascular complications, sterility, depression, and aggression. GH and AAS are both believed to interact with several signaling systems in the CNS. The aim of this thesis was to further investigate the impact of GH and AAS on neurochemistry and cognitive functions. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) and the steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) were administered, separately and in combination with each other, to male rats.

The results demonstrated that administration of GH improved spatial memory, assessed in a water maze test. Furthermore, GH induced alterations of the GABAB receptor mRNA expression, density, and functionality in the brain, for example in regions associated with cognition. GH also altered the mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor, but not the delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptor functionality in the brain. Thus, some of the GH effects on cognition may involve effects on the GABAB receptors and MOP receptors. ND, on the contrary, seemed to induce impairments of memory and also altered the GABAB receptor mRNA expression in the brain. Furthermore, ND lowered the IGF-1 plasma concentrations and attenuated the IGF-1, IGF-2, and GHR mRNA expression in the pituitary. In addition, significant effects of GH and ND were found on plasma steroid concentrations, organ weight, as well as body weight.

In conclusion, this thesis contributes with further knowledge on the cognitive and neurochemical consequences of GH and ND use. The findings regarding ND are worrying considering the common use of AAS among adolescents. GH improves memory functions and affects signaling systems in the brain associated with cognition, hence the hypothesis that GH can reverse drug-induced impairments is further strengthened.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 73 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 175
Growth hormone, anabolic androgenic steroids, nandrolone decanoate, insulin-like growth factor, GABAB, opioids, memory, water maze, autoradiography, central nervous system, rats
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Biological Research on Drug Dependence
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206069 (URN)978-91-554-8732-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-10-11, B21, Biomedical center, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2013-09-20 Created: 2013-08-27 Last updated: 2014-01-22

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Grönbladh, AlfhildBergquist, JonasHallberg, Mathias
By organisation
Department of Pharmaceutical BiosciencesAnalytical ChemistryScience for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab
In the same journal
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

Altmetric score

Total: 428 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link