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Transforming the Doping Culture: Whose responsibility, what responsibility?
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. (Centre for Research Ethics & Bioethics)
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The doping culture represents an issue for sport and for society. Normative debates on doping have been mainly concerned with questions of the justifiability of doping. The practice of assigning responsibility for doping behaviour has chiefly been individual-based, focusing mainly on the individual athlete’s doping behaviour. The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the relevance and the importance of the ideas of responsibility in relation to ethical debates on doping. The more specific aim is to examine the possibility of broadening the scope of responsibility beyond the individual athlete, and to sketch a theoretical framework within which this expansion could be accommodated. In the first study, it is argued that bioethicists have a moral/professional responsibility to start out from a realistic and up-to-date view of genetics in ethical debates on gene doping, and that good bioethics requires good empirics. In study 2, the role played by affective processes in influencing athletes’ attitudes towards doping behaviour is investigated, both on an individual and on a collective level. It is concluded that an exclusive focus on individual-level rule violation and sanctions may entail overlooking the greater social picture and would prove to be ineffective in the long term. In study 3, the common doping-is-cheating arguments are examined and it is argued that they fail to capture vital features of people’s moral responses to doping behaviour. An alternative account of cheating in sport is presented in terms of failure to manifest good will and respect. It is concluded that putting cheating in the broader context of human interpersonal relationships makes evident the need to broaden the scope of moral responsibility and agency beyond the individual athlete. In study 4, the particular case of assigning responsibility for doping to sports physicians is used to examine the current individual-based approach to responsibility. This approach underestimates the scope of the responsibility by leaving out a range of other actors from the discourse of responsibility. The central conclusion of the thesis is that transforming the current doping culture requires broadening the scope of responsibility to include individuals and groups of individuals other than the athletes themselves.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. , 72 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 931
Keyword [en]
Doping, responsibility, prospective responsibilities, cheating, good will, interpersonal relations, sports
National Category
Ethics
Research subject
Ethics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206607ISBN: 978-91-554-8738-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-206607DiVA: diva2:644734
Public defence
2013-10-11, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-09-20 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2014-01-23
List of papers
1. Gene Doping and the Responsibility of Bioethicists
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene Doping and the Responsibility of Bioethicists
2011 (English)In: Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, ISSN 1751-1321, E-ISSN 1751-133X, Vol. 5, no 2, 149-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we will argue: (1) that scholars, regardless of their normative stand against or for genetic enhancement indeed have a moral/professional obligation to hold on to a realistic and up-to-date conception of genetic enhancement; (2) that there is an unwarranted hype surrounding the issue of genetic enhancement in general, and gene doping in particular; and (3) that this hype is, at least partly, created due to a simplistic and reductionist conception of genetics often adopted by bioethicists.

Keyword
genetic enhancement; gene-doping; sport
National Category
Ethics
Research subject
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206595 (URN)10.1080/17511321.2010.536960 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Beyond the Individual: Sources of Attitudes Towards Rule Violation in Sport
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the Individual: Sources of Attitudes Towards Rule Violation in Sport
2012 (English)In: Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, ISSN 1751-1321, E-ISSN 1751-133X, Vol. 6, no 4, 467-479 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, certain rule-violating behaviours, such as doping, are considered to be an issue of concern for the sport community. This paper underlines and examines the affective dimensions involved in moral responses to, and attitudes towards, rule-violating behaviours in sport. The key role played by affective processes underlying individual-level moral judgement has already been implicated by recent developments in moral psychological theories, and by neurophysiological studies. However, we propose and discuss the possibility of affective processes operating on a social level which may influence athletes’ individual-level attitudes. We conclude that one-sided focus on individual rule- violating behaviour and individual sanctions may prove to be ineffective in coming to terms with the issue. In this regard we recommend a twofold approach by addressing underlying social dimensions, along with preventive measures through affect-oriented education.

Keyword
rule-violating behaviour, emotion, emotion culture, moral response, moral psychology
National Category
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206599 (URN)10.1080/17511321.2012.739194 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Cheating is the name of the game: Conventional cheating arguments fail to articulate moral responses to doping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cheating is the name of the game: Conventional cheating arguments fail to articulate moral responses to doping
2013 (English)In: Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, ISSN 2081-2221, E-ISSN 1899-4849, Vol. 59, no 1, 21-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One of the most common arguments in the discussion on doping is that it represents a form of cheating. In this paper, it is argued that common doping-is-cheating arguments based on notions of rule-violation and unfair advantage are inadequate, since they treat cheating as distinct from the structure and the logic of competitive sport. An alternative approach to cheating in sport as regards performance enhancement will be offered based on the ethics of participation in interpersonal relationships. This participatory perspective points towards the need to broaden our conception of agency and moral responsibility in relation to doping, beyond the notion of the individual “drug-cheat” who acts in a vacuum.

 

Keyword
Doping, Cheating, unfair advantage, rule violation, interpersonal relationships
National Category
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206601 (URN)10.2478/pcssr-2013-0020 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Doping and The Participatory Responsibility of Sports Physicians
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doping and The Participatory Responsibility of Sports Physicians
2013 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In this paper it will be argued that notwithstanding the need for more clear regulative measures in relation to sports physicians’ doping behaviour, the predominant medical/legalistic approach in/by itself is not sufficient, and fails in doing what sports anti-doping authorities whish it to do, i.e., to define and to assign sports physicians’ responsibility in an adequate way. High-performance sport is a form of social practice and sports physicians are an integrated part of the practice. In dealing with such a large-scale social process as high-performance sport, the above approach is lacking since it (a) proceeds from a conception of responsibility which limits the scope of responsibility in athletic settings, and (b) overlooks social aspects of responsibility and responsibility-attributing processes. Furthermore, it will be maintained that responsibility is relational, and as such, it is chiefly created and assigned within the social practice, rather than imposed from authoritative sources that are external to the practice itself. It will be concluded that sports physicians, given their position in relation to athletes and sports management, should actively assume prospective responsibilities beyond those pre- defined responsibilities that are expressed in rules, regulations and policies issued by sports’ governing bodies.

Keyword
Sports Physician, Doping, Responsibility
National Category
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206605 (URN)
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved

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