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Dynamic reaching in infants during binocular and monocular viewing
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
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2013 (English)In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 229, no 1, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined reaching in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-olds during binocular and monocular viewing in a dynamic reaching situation. Infants were rotated toward a flat vertical board and reached for objects at one of seven positions along a horizontal line at shoulder height. Hand selection, time to contact the object, and reaching accuracy were examined in both viewing conditions. Hand selection was strongly dependent on object location, not on infants' age or whether one eye was covered. Monocular viewing and age did, however, affect time to object contact and contact errors: Infants showed longer contact times when one eye was covered, and 6-month-olds made more contact errors in the monocular condition. For right-hand selection, contact times were longer when the covered right eye was leading during the chair rotation. For left-hand selection, there were no differences in contact time due to whether the covered eye was leading during rotation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 229, no 1, 1-12 p.
Keyword [en]
Reaching, Monocular-binocular, Infants, Prospective control
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-206570DOI: 10.1007/s00221-013-3588-zISI: 000322171500001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-206570DiVA: diva2:644900
Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Manual Motor Development in Infancy: Execution and Observation of Actions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manual Motor Development in Infancy: Execution and Observation of Actions
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Of all motor skills, manual reaching might be the one ability that matters most for infants’ perceptual, cognitive and social development. Reaching allows infants to learn about object properties, but also gives opportunities for socializing with others. The general aim of the present thesis was to study the importance of manual motor development in infancy from different perspectives; first, through examining stereopsis as a prerequisite for efficient reaching development, second, with regard to understanding others goal-directed reach actions by means of the mirror neuron system (MNS), and third, in relation to possible atypical development, with a specific focus on autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Study I shows that under monocular viewing conditions, infants at six, eight and 10 months of age perform slower and less accurate reaches. Longer times to object contact during monocular trials specifically imply that motor prediction is less effective when depth and distance information is compromised.

Study II demonstrates that, by eight months of age, infants seem to have a MNS that functions in a similar manner to the adult MNS, thus activity can be registered over the motor cortex when infants simply observe an action they can master themselves. This activation is predictive, indicating anticipation of the goal of the observed reach.

Study III indicates that infants at elevated familial risk for ASD present with reduced prospective motor control at 10 months of age. Compared to a low-risk control sample, high-risk infants perform reactive rather than predictive reach actions. Follow-up assessment at 36 months will show whether this measure can be used as a predictive diagnostic marker for ASD.

The main contribution given by this work is the insight that it is important to take manual motor aspects into account when considering typical as well as atypical cognitive and social development, and in addition, that motor prediction is a key factor behind being able to timely execute and understand reaching actions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 99 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 119
Keyword
Infancy, Motor development, Reaching, Actions, Motor prediction, Prospective motor control, Social cognition, Stereopsis, Mirror neuron system, Mu rhythm, Motor impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder, High-risk siblings
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264869 (URN)978-91-554-9386-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-11, Museum Gustavianum, Auditorium Minus, Akademigatan 3, 753 10, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2016-01-13Bibliographically approved

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Ekberg, Therese L.Rosander, Kerstinvon Hofsten, Claes

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