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Electrochemical elaboration of electrodes and electrolytes for 3D structured batteries
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
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2013 (English)In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 1, no 32, 9281-9293 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The challenges associated with the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) electrode and electrolyte materials for Li-ion batteries are discussed. The basic issues for achieving a solid 3D cell foundation, which can simultaneously offer sufficient electronic conductivity to enable stable cycling, as well as enough compatibility with the incorporation of complementary components, have been addressed. Various electrochemical strategies for elaborating such systems are discussed and critically examined. Several current collector systems are presented including electrochemically prepared Cu and Al nanorods and commercial aperiodic carbon structures. Further electrochemical coating approaches then provide a direct method for the deposition of thin layers of active materials successfully demonstrated here as coatings on both 3D metal structures and commercially available 3D-structured carbon substrates. Enhanced capacities per foot print area are demonstrated for a number of 3D electrode materials, namely polyaniline on reticulated vitreous carbon, Cu2O on copper nanorods and TiO2 on Al nanorods. The crucial points for achieving a thin conformal coating of the corresponding 3D electrode structures with solid polymer electrolytes are also carefully analysed and discussed. In this context electro-polymerisation is proposed as a viable route to form thin electrolyte layers with promising characteristics. The high versatility of electro-polymerisation in combination with the various structures and methodologies adopted here represents a further step towards the development of cost-effective 3D microbattery devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 1, no 32, 9281-9293 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207063DOI: 10.1039/c3ta11921aISI: 000322121300036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-207063DiVA: diva2:646447
Available from: 2013-09-09 Created: 2013-09-09 Last updated: 2014-12-15
In thesis
1. Fabrication of Polymer Electrolytes for 3D-Microbatteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Polymer Electrolytes for 3D-Microbatteries
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pressing demands on electrical energy storage require high power and high energy density rechargeable batteries with improved safety, reliable performance and low cost. This has led to reconsiderations in the choice of battery chemistry and battery design. Practical concerns originating from the use of flammable liquid electrolytes has renewed the interests in using solvent-free polymer electrolytes as flexible solid ionic conductors. At the same time, the limitations of conventional planar battery designs have seen the utilization of these materials in novel battery designs, such as three-dimensional microbatteries (3DMBs).

In this work, solvent-free polymer electrolytes have been tailored for 3DMB applications, due to their beneficial properties of non-flammability and dimensional stability. Polymer electrolytes based on functionalized poly(propylene glycol) triamine (PEA)-based oligomer have been developed via different synthetic routes, their potential use in 3DMBs has been demonstrated, and also their applicability for batteries of conventional dimensions. By tailoring the functionality in PEA oligomer, the electrolyte can be self-assembled and in-situ polymerized onto semi-3D (e.g., LiFePO4 composite) and 3D electrodes (e.g., 3D Cu-nanopillar) using in-situ UV-initiated polymerization or electropolymerization. The obtained conformal and uniform coatings, with thicknesses down to micro- and nano-dimensions, display useful ionic conductivity and stability for 3DMB applications.

Moreover, high molecular weight poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC), serving as a polymer host material alternative to the conventional polyethers, was investigated for Li-ion batteries and potential implementation in 3DMBs. Polymer electrolytes with useful electrochemical stability and flexibility have been tested in LiFePO4 half-cells and demonstrate promising cycling performance comparable to liquid electrolyte-based counterparts at elevated temperature. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Kph Trycksaksbolaget, 2013. 50 p.
Keyword
3D-microbattery, Polymer electrolyte, Multifunctional monomer, Polyetheramine, Polycarbonate
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208992 (URN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-12 Last updated: 2013-10-16Bibliographically approved
2. Electrochemically nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion microbatteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemically nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion microbatteries
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electrodeposition is a promising technique for fabricating complex nanostructures and coating these with suitable thin films of active materials. The research presented in this thesis aims at the development of new electro- chemical methods for the synthesis of nanostructured electrodes suitable for Li-ion microbatteries. Electrodes based on nanostructured Cu and Al current collectors have been investigated to provide insight into the fabrication of both anodes and cathodes.

Coating 3D aluminium current collectors with a vanadium oxide thin film is generally accompanied by aluminium corrosion due to the oxidative environment employed in the electrodeposition. To circumvent this issue a protective intermediate MnOx coating was implemented which suppresses the Al corrosion thereby facilitating subsequent vanadium oxide deposition.

3D Cu electrodes with thin Cu2O coatings were fabricated to investigate their electrochemical properties and the mechanism of the Cu2O conversion reaction. Impressive high-rate cycling capabilities and capacity retention were observed with capacities corresponding to 130% of the theoretical capacity obtained after 390 cycles. This capacity gain was linked to electro- chemical milling of the Cu2O particles producing particles smaller than 5 nm. A distribution of particles with different sizes was also observed during the electrochemical analysis. This gave rise to a substantial redox potential distribution and a large electroactive potential window. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kph Trycksaksbolaget: Kph, 2013. 144 p.
Keyword
Electrodeposition, 3D, Li-ion microbatteries, thin films
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213433 (URN)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2013-12-22 Last updated: 2014-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Valvo, MarioOltean, GabrielSun, BingRehnlund, DavidBrandell, DanielNyholm, LeifGustafsson, TorbjörnEdström, Kristina

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