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Nutritional status predicts preterm death in older people: a prospective cohort study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3691-8326
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2014 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 33, no 2, 354-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background & aims: There is an association between malnutrition and mortality. However, it is uncertain whether this association is independent of confounders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether nutritional status, defined according to the three categories in the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument, is an independent predictor of preterm death in people 65 years and older. Methods: This prospective cohort study included individuals aged >= 65 years who were admitted to hospital between March 2008 and May 2009 and followed-up after 50 months (n = 1767). Nutritional status was assessed with the MNA, and possible risk factors associated with malnutrition were recorded during participants hospital stay. Main outcome measure was overall survival. Results: Based on the MNA definitions, 628 (35.5%) were well-nourished, 973 (55.1%) were at risk of malnutrition, and 166 (9.4%) of the participants were malnourished at baseline. During the follow-up period 655 (37.1%) participants died. At follow-up, the survival rates were 75.2% for well-nourished participants, 60.0% for those at risk of malnutrition, and 33.7% for malnourished participants (p < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders the hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.56 (1.18-2.07) in the group at risk of malnutrition and 3.71 (2.28-6.04) in the malnourished group. Conclusions: Nutritional status defined according to the three categories in the full MNA independently predicts preterm death in people aged 65 years and older. These findings are clinically important and emphasise the usefulness of the MNA for screening of nutritional status.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 33, no 2, 354-359 p.
Keyword [en]
nutritional status, malnutrition, Mini Nutritional Assessment, survival analysis
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207484DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.06.004ISI: 000334985500027OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-207484DiVA: diva2:648370
Available from: 2013-09-16 Created: 2013-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nutritional status among older people: Risk factors and consequences of malnutrition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutritional status among older people: Risk factors and consequences of malnutrition
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite the high frequency and serious consequences of protein–energy malnutrition, prevention and treatment of malnutrition do not currently receive appropriate attention. Increased awareness of the importance of nutritional screening among older people is needed. The overall aim of this thesis was to extend our current knowledge about malnutrition and the consequences of a poor nutritional status in relation to preterm death, and to identify possible risk factors for developing malnutrition among older people. The aim of Paper I was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition and to examine the associations between mealtime habits, meal provision, and malnutrition among older people admitted to a Swedish hospital. The aim of Paper II was to examine whether nutritional status, defined according to the three categories in the full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument, is an independent predictor of preterm death in older people.

The baseline survey was a cross-sectional study of 1771 patients aged ³65 years who were admitted to hospital. Nutritional status was assessed using the MNA instrument, and possible risk factors associated with malnutrition were recorded during the hospital stay (Paper I). Overall survival was followed up after 35–50 months in a cohort study of 1767 participants (Paper II).

Of the 1771 participants, 35.5% were well-nourished, 55.1% were at risk of malnutrition, and 9.4% were malnourished at baseline. An overnight fast >11 hours was associated with risk of malnutrition (odds ratio (OR) 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.87) and being malnourished (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.04–2.69). Fewer than four eating episodes a day was associated with both risk of malnutrition (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.52–2.32) and being malnourished (OR 3.10; 95% CI 2.14–4.49). Not cooking independently was also associated with both risk of malnutrition (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.30–2.93) and being malnourished (OR 5.04; 95% CI 2.95–8.61). At the 50-month follow-up, the survival rates were 75.2% for well-nourished participants, 60.0% for those at risk of malnutrition, and 33.7% for malnourished participants. After adjusting for confounders, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for all-cause mortality were 1.56 (1.18–2.07) in the group at risk of malnutrition and 3.71 (2.28–6.04) in the malnourished group. Nutritional status defined according to the three categories in the full MNA independently predicted preterm death in people aged 65 years and older.

This thesis provides additional knowledge of the current nutritional situation among older people admitted to hospital. The high prevalence and serious consequences of malnutrition demonstrated in this thesis underline the importance of screening and taking actions to counteract malnutrition among older people. The data showing that the length of overnight fasting and number of eating episodes per day are possible risk factors for malnutrition are consistent with the current nutritional recommendations. This knowledge may stimulate care providers to decrease the length of overnight fasting and increase the number of eating episodes per day among older people at risk of malnutrition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kopieringen vid Västmanlans sjukhus Västerås, 2013. 23 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science; Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207486 (URN)978-91-506-2345-1 (ISBN)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-09-16 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
2. Nutritional Screening of Older Adults: Risk Factors for and Consequences of Malnutrition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutritional Screening of Older Adults: Risk Factors for and Consequences of Malnutrition
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aims The overall aim of this thesis was to extend current knowledge about the prevalence of malnutrition, to identify possible risk factors for development of malnutrition, and to describe the consequences of malnutrition in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality among older adults admitted to hospital.

Methods The prevalence of malnutrition was estimated in a cohort of 1771 older adults (≥65 years) who were admitted to a Swedish hospital during 2008–2009 (15 months) and screened for malnutrition using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument. Possible risk factors for malnutrition were recorded during the hospital stay (Study I). Dietary intake 10 years earlier (in 1997) was collected for 725 of these older adults (Study II). All-cause (Study III) and cause-specific (Study IV) mortality were followed up after medians of 3.5 and 5.1 years, respectively, for 1767 of the participants.

Results The prevalence of malnutrition was 9.4% while 55.1% were at risk of malnutrition. Risk factors for malnutrition was an overnight fast >11 hours, <4 eating episodes a day, and not cooking independently. In middle-aged and older adults with a body mass index <25 kg/m2 in 1997, the risk of malnutrition increased for each additional percentage point of energy from total, saturated and monounsaturated fat at follow-up after 10 years. Malnourished older adults had almost four times higher risk of death during follow-up, while those at risk of malnutrition had a 56% higher risk, compared to well-nourished. Furthermore, well-nourished older adults had consistently lower risk of death, regardless of the cause of death.

Conclusions Only 35.5% of older adults admitted to hospital were well-nourished. The identified risk factors could be used in interventions aimed at preventing malnutrition. Normal-weight and underweight middle-aged and older adults should consider limiting the intake of total fat and/or improve the quality of the fat in the diet in order to decrease the risk of becoming malnourished later in life. Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were associated with increased overall and cause-specific mortality. These relationships emphasize the need for nutritional screening to identify individuals who may require nutritional support in order to avoid preterm death.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 83 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1167
Keyword
Epidemiology, Malnutrition, Mortality, Older adults, Prevalence, Risk factors
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Geriatrics
Research subject
Nutrition; Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267564 (URN)978-91-554-9435-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-26, Vårdskolans aula, ing. 21, Västmanlands sjukhus Västerås, Västerås, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-15 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2016-02-12

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Söderström, LisaRosenblad, AndreasAdolfsson, Eva ThorsSaletti, AnjaBergkvist, Leif

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