Relations between the performance of a coated cutting tool and the composition and properties of the wear resistant coating: A study including first principles modeling, mechanical properties and technological testing
Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
This thesis work was performed at AB Sandvik Coromant and aimed to enhance the knowledge about the relationships between the performance of TiN and TiAlN-coated cutting tools in metal turning and their mechanical and chemical properties.
Measurements of coating material properties and turning wear tests in annealed tool steel Sverker 21, stainless steel 316L, grey cast iron V314 and nodular cast iron SS0727 were performed. The cutting temperatures were estimated from FEM-simulations. To find the dominant wear mechanism and identify the properties that are most important for the resistance against that particular wear, a correlation analysis was performed together with a wear study using LOM, SEM and EDS.
The results show that relations between cutting performance and mechanical properties and/or composition of the coatings can be established. The FEM-simulations suggested that the peak tool temperature was highest, ~750°C, for turning in 316L and lowest for turning in Sverker 21, ~300°C. Turning in cast iron resulted in temperatures around 500-550°C.
A mechanism for the growth of the crater on inserts tested in stainless steel 316L is proposed. Wear due to thermo-mechanical load and adhesion are believed to be the dominating wear mechanisms. The performance of the tool showed a high correlation to the composition of the coatings, with a decreased tool life for higher Al-contents. The reason for this might lie in an increased brittleness of these coatings, accelerating formation of lateral cracks above the crater. Calculated ratios of bulk and shear modulus suggests an increased brittleness for higher Al-contents. A higher tendency to stick to the work piece material might also contribute to a decrease in tool life. An Increased Al-content could also drive the formation of c-AlN to h-AlN, causing even higher wear rates. The coatings with higher substrate bias showed an enhanced performance, even though the crack pattern was worsened for these variants. The reason for the enhanced performance seen for these variants might instead originate in an enhanced adhesion to the substrate.
In the flank wear resistance test in Sverker 21 the Al-content proved to be important, with an improved performance for higher Al-contents. In contrast to the test in 316L, a change in bias or hardness had no effect on the performance in this test. Scratch patterns on the flank supports that an abrasive wear mechanism is present, but no correlation between hardness and tool life could be obtained. Either some other material property than hardness is of importance for the abrasive resistance in this test, or another wear mechanism, occurring simultaneously with abrasion, is the wear rate deciding.
The second part of this thesis work was to evaluate the ability of a quantum mechanical computational method, density functional theory, to predict material properties. The method predicts the lattice parameters and bulk moduli in excellent agreement with experimental values. The method also well predicts other elastic properties, with results consistent with reference values. There seems to be a constant shift of about 50-100 GPa between the calculated elastic modulus and the experimentally measured values, probably originating in contributions from grain boundaries, texture, stresses and defects present in the real coatings, and possibly also in errors in the experimental method due to an influence from the substrate. The calculated hardness values did not follow the trend of an increased hardness for TiAlN compared to TiN, which is seen in experiments.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , 68 p.
UPTEC K, ISSN 1650-8297 ; 13018
Thin film, coating, wear, density functional theory, first principles, ab initio, turning
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207566OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-207566DiVA: diva2:648560
AB Sandvik Coromant
Master Programme in Chemical Engineering
Århammar, Cecilia, DoctorAhuja, Rajeev, Professor
Larsson, KarinHermansson, Kersti