Effect of Ventilatory Support on Abdominal Fluid Balance in a Sepsis Model
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
In patients affected by acute respiratory failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the leading cause of death is failure of different vital organs other than the lungs, so called multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The abdominal organs have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.
There is a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which mechanical ventilation can affect the abdominal compartment. One hypothesis is that mechanical ventilation can interfere with abdominal fluid balance causing edema and inflammation.
We addressed the question whether different levels of ventilatory support (mechanical ventilation with different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure, PEEP, and spontaneous breathing with or without PEEP) can influence abdominal edema and inflammation in both healthy and endotoxin-exposed animals.
The effect on lymphatic drainage from the abdomen exerted by different degrees of ventilatory support was evaluated (paper I). We demonstrated that endotoxin increases abdominal lymph production, that PEEP and mechanical ventilation increase lymph production but also impede lymphatic drainage; spontaneous breathing improves lymphatic drainage from the abdomen.
By adapting a non-invasive nuclear medicine imaging technique and validating it (paper II), we have been able to evaluate extravascular fluid accumulation (edema formation) in the abdomen over time (paper III) demonstrating that edema increases during endotoxemia, mimicking a sepsis-like condition, and that spontaneous breathing, compared to mechanical ventilation, reduces extravascular fluid. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in intestinal biopsies are reduced during spontaneous breathing compared to mechanical ventilation.
Abdominal edema results in increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP): in paper IV we analyzed the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on the respiratory system. Pulmonary shunt fraction increased with high IAP both in healthy and LPS animals, resulting in decreased level of oxygenation. These changes are only partially reversible by reducing IAP.
In conclusion, mechanical ventilation is a life-saving tool but the possible side effect at the extra-pulmonary level should be considered, and the introduction of some degree of spontaneous breathing when clinically possible is a suggested choice.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. , 35 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 941
mechanical ventilation, lymph flow, spontaneous breathing, positive end-expiratory pressure, PEEP, abdominal edema, inflammation, intra-abdominal pressure, IAP
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Physiology
Research subject Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care; Clinical Physiology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207218ISBN: 978-91-554-8787-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-207218DiVA: diva2:652481
2013-12-09, Enghoffsalen, Entrance 50, University Hospital, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Oldner, Anders, Doc
Hedenstierna, Göran, ProfFredén, Filip, Doc
FunderSwedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Research Council, 5315
List of papers