Multiple Imputation of Missing Covariates in NONMEM and Evaluation of the Method's Sensitivity to eta-Shrinkage
2013 (English)In: AAPS Journal, ISSN 1550-7416, Vol. 15, no 4, 1035-1042 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Multiple imputation (MI) is an approach widely used in statistical analysis of incomplete data. However, its application to missing data problems in nonlinear mixed-effects modelling is limited. The objective was to implement a four-step MI method for handling missing covariate data in NONMEM and to evaluate the method's sensitivity to eta-shrinkage. Four steps were needed; (1) estimation of empirical Bayes estimates (EBEs) using a base model without the partly missing covariate, (2) a regression model for the covariate values given the EBEs from subjects with covariate information, (3) imputation of covariates using the regression model and (4) estimation of the population model. Steps (3) and (4) were repeated several times. The procedure was automated in PsN and is now available as the mimp functionality (http://psn.sourceforge.net/).. The method's sensitivity to shrinkage in EBEs was evaluated in a simulation study where the covariate was missing according to a missing at random type of missing data mechanism. The eta-shrinkage was increased in steps from 4.5 to 54%. Two hundred datasets were simulated and analysed for each scenario. When shrinkage was low the MI method gave unbiased and precise estimates of all population parameters. With increased shrinkage the estimates became less precise but remained unbiased.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 15, no 4, 1035-1042 p.
covariates, missing data, multiple imputation, NONMEM
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210182DOI: 10.1208/s12248-013-9508-0ISI: 000325126300014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-210182DiVA: diva2:661557