Mechanisms and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides LL-37, CNY100HL and Wheat Germ Histones
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, e68875- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a potential new class of antimicrobial drugs with potent and broad-spectrum activities. However, knowledge about the mechanisms and rates of resistance development to AMPs and the resulting effects on fitness and cross-resistance is limited. We isolated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) resistant Salmonella typhimurium LT2 mutants by serially passaging several independent bacterial lineages in progressively increasing concentrations of LL-37, CNY100HL and Wheat Germ Histones. Significant AMP resistance developed in 15/18 independent bacterial lineages. Resistance mutations were identified by whole genome sequencing in two-component signal transduction systems (pmrB and phoP) as well as in the LPS core biosynthesis pathway (waaY, also designated rfaY). In most cases, resistance was associated with a reduced fitness, observed as a decreased growth rate, which was dependent on growth conditions and mutation type. Importantly, mutations in waaY decreased bacterial susceptibility to all tested AMPs and the mutant outcompeted the wild type parental strain at AMP concentrations below the MIC for the wild type. Our data suggests that resistance to antimicrobial peptides can develop rapidly through mechanisms that confer cross-resistance to several AMPs. Importantly, AMP-resistant mutants can have a competitive advantage over the wild type strain at AMP concentrations similar to those found near human epithelial cells. These results suggest that resistant mutants could both be selected de novo and maintained by exposure to our own natural repertoire of defence molecules.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 8, no 7, e68875- p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210752DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068875ISI: 000325211000049OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-210752DiVA: diva2:664231