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Structure and composition of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitridecoatings for joint replacements
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
Linköping University. (Applied Optics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM))
Linköping University. (Thin Film Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM))
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
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2013 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 235, p. 827-834Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SiNx and SiCxNy coatings were fabricated with high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings microstructure, growth pattern, surface morphology, composition, and bonding structure were investigated by AFM, SEM, GIXRD, TEM, EDS as well as XPS, and related to the deposition parameters target powers and substrate temperature. Cross-sections of SiCxNy coatings showed either dense and laminar, or columnar structures. These coatings varied in roughness (Ra between 0.2 and 3.8 nm) and contained up to 35 at.% C. All coatings were substoichiometric (with an N/Si ratio from 0.27 to 0.65) and contained incorporated particles (so called droplets). The SiNx coatings, in particular those deposited at the lower power on the silicon target, demonstrated a dense microstructure and low surface roughness (Ra between 0.2 and 0.3 nm). They were dominated by an (X-ray) amorphous structure and consisted mainly of Si–N bonds. The usefulness of these coatings is discussed for bearing surfaces for hip joint arthroplasty in order to prolong their life-time. The long-term aim is to obtain a coating that reduces wear and metal ion release, that is biocompatible, and with wear debris that can dissolve in vivo.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 235, p. 827-834
Keyword [en]
Silicon nitride coating; Silicon carbon nitride coating; High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS); Total joint replacements; Microstructure
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211520DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.09.008ISI: 000329596100105OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-211520DiVA, id: diva2:667167
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
Available from: 2013-11-25 Created: 2013-11-25 Last updated: 2018-02-08
In thesis
1. Silicon nitride for total hip replacements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon nitride for total hip replacements
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

For more than 50 years total hip replacements have been a common and successful procedure to increase patient mobility and quality of life. The 10-year implant survival rate is 97.8%. However, for longer implantation times there are limitations linked to the negative biological response to wear and corrosion products from the currently used biomaterials.

In this thesis silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings were evaluated for use in total hip replacements, on the articulating bearing surface and modular taper connections. Homogeneous, dense SiNx coatings were deposited using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) up to a thickness of 8 µm. The N/Si atomic ratios ranged from 0.3 to 1.1 and the coatings showed a low surface roughness. The wear rate of a SiNx coated cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) was similar to that of bulk Si3N4, and less than one 46th of uncoated CoCrMo, an alloy that is commonly used in joint replacements. Wear debris generated from SiNx coatings was round in shape, with a mean size of 40 nm, and ranged between 10 and 500 nm. Model particles, similar in size and shape as the wear debris, were soluble in simulated body fluid. The dissolution rate was higher than the expected rate of debris generation. Along with the size of the debris, which is not in the critical range for macrophage activation, this dissolution may limit negative biological reactions. The SiNx coatings also dissolved in simulated body fluid. The coating with the highest N/Si ratio exhibited the lowest dissolution rate, of 0.2 to 0.4 nm/day, while CoCrMo under the same condition dissolved at a rate of 0.7 to 1.2 nm/day. SiNx-coated CoCrMo exhibited a reduced release of Co, Cr and Mo ions into the solution by two orders of magnitude, compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Si3N4 evaluated under micro-displacement in a corrosive environment, replicating the modular taper, showed a lower corrosion current compared to common biomedical alloys. SiNx coatings may also act beneficially to reduce issues associated with this type of contact.

SiNx coatings have shown several properties in a laboratory environment that are hypothesised to increase the longevity of joint replacements. The promising results encourage further evaluation closer to the clinical application of total hip replacements, in particular in the articulating bearing surface and in modular tapers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. p. 53
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1242
Keyword
SiNx, Si3N4, coatings, CoCr, Ti, alloy, tribology, wear, corrosion, dissolution, debris, hip, arthroplasty
National Category
Materials Engineering Medical Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247800 (URN)978-91-554-9211-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 310477
Available from: 2015-04-29 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2018-02-08

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Pettersson, MariaJacobson, StaffanPersson, CeciliaEngqvist, Håkan

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