2D and 3D Reflection Seismic Studies over Scandinavian Deformation Zones
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The study of deformation zones is of great geological interest since these zones can separate rocks with different characteristics. The geometry of these structures with depth is important for interpreting the geological history of an area. Paper I to III present 2D reflection seismic data over deformation zones targeting structures in the upper 3-4 km of the crust. These seismic profiles were acquired with a crooked-line recording geometry. 2D seismic processing assumes a straight recording geometry. Most seismic processing tools were developed for sub-horizontally layered structures. However, in the crystalline rocks in Scandinavia more complex structures with contrasting dip directions and folding are common. The crooked-line recording geometries have the benefit of sampling a 3D volume. This broader sampling can be used to gain knowledge about the true geometry of subsurface structures. Correlation with geological maps and other geophysical data along with seismic data modeling can be used to differentiate reflections from faults or fracture zones from other reflectivity, e.g. mafic bodies. Fault and fracture zones may have a large impedance contrast to surrounding rocks, while ductile shear zones usually do not. The ductile shear zones can instead be interpreted based on differing reflectivity patterns between domains and correlations with geology or magnetic maps. Paper IV presents 3D reflection seismic data from a quick-clay landslide site in southern Sweden. The area is located in a deformation zone and structures in unconsolidated sediments may have been influenced by faults in the bedrock. The main target layer is located at only 20 m depth, but good surface conditions during acquisition and careful processing enabled a clear seismic image of this shallow layer to be obtained.The research presented in this thesis provides increased knowledge about subsurface structures in four geologically important areas. The unconventional processing methods used are recommended to future researchers working with data from crooked-line recording geometries in crystalline environments. The imaging of shallow structures at the quick-clay landslide site shows that the 3D reflection seismic method can be used as a complement to other geophysical measurements for shallow landslide site investigations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 57 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1102
Azimuthal binning, Crooked-line geometry, Cross-dip, Fault zone, Hard rock seismics, MTFC, Quick clay, Shear zone, UDZ
Research subject Geophysics with specialization in Solid Earth Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211215ISBN: 978-91-554-8817-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-211215DiVA: diva2:667577
2014-01-31, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Nielsen, Lars, Associate Professor
Juhlin, Christopher, ProfessorMalehmir, Alireza, Associate Professor
List of papers