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All is not lost: Understanding and exploiting packet corruption in outdoor sensor networks
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
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2014 (English)In: Wireless Sensor Networks: EWSN 2014, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 116-132 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014. 116-132 p.
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 8354
National Category
Computer Science Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211736DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-04651-8_8ISI: 000340395900008ISBN: 978-3-319-04650-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-211736DiVA: diva2:668459
Conference
11th European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks, Feb 17-19, 2014, Oxford, England
Projects
WISENETProFuN
Available from: 2013-11-29 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2016-08-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Meteorological impact and transmission errors in outdoor wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meteorological impact and transmission errors in outdoor wireless sensor networks
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor networks have been deployed outdoors ever since their inception. They have been used in areas such as precision farming, tracking wildlife, and monitoring glaciers. These diverse application areas all have different requirements and constraints, shaping the way in which the sensor network communicates. Yet something they all share is the exposure to an outdoor environment, which at times can be harsh, uncontrolled and difficult to predict. Therefore, understanding the implications of an outdoor environment is an essential step towards reliable wireless sensor network operations.

In this thesis we consider aspects of how the environment influence outdoor wireless sensor networks. Specifically, we experimentally study how meteorological factors impact radio links, and find that temperature is most significant. This motivates us to further study and propose a first order model describing the impact of temperature on wireless sensor nodes. We also analyze transmission errors in an outdoor wireless sensor networks, identifying and explaining patterns in the way data gets corrupted. The findings lead to a design and evaluation of an approach for probabilistic recover of corrupt data in outdoor wireless sensor networks. Apart from the experimental findings we have conducted two different outdoor deployments for which large data sets has been collected, containing both link and meteorological measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2013
Series
Information technology licentiate theses: Licentiate theses from the Department of Information Technology, ISSN 1404-5117 ; 2013-007
National Category
Computer Science Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-227639 (URN)
Supervisors
Projects
WISENET
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2014-06-29 Last updated: 2017-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. Sensor Networks and Their Radio Environment: On Testbeds, Interference, and Broken Packets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensor Networks and Their Radio Environment: On Testbeds, Interference, and Broken Packets
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sensor networks consist of small sensing devices that collaboratively fulfill a sensing task, such as monitoring the soil in an agricultural field or measuring vital signs in a marathon runner. To avoid cumbersome and expensive cabling, nodes in a sensor network are powered by batteries and communicate wirelessly. As a consequence of the latter, a sensor network's communication is affected by its radio environment, i.e., the environment's propagation characteristics and the presence of other radio devices. This thesis addresses three issues related to the impact of the radio environment on sensor networks.

Firstly, in order to draw conclusions from experimental results, it is necessary to assess how the environment and the experiment infrastructure affect the results. We design a sensor network testbed, dubbed Sensei-UU, to be easily relocatable. By performing an experiment in different environments, a researcher can asses the environments’ impact on results. We further augment Sensei-UU with support for mobile nodes. The implemented mobility approach adds only little variance to results, and therefore enables repeatable experiments with mobility. The repeatability of experiments increases the confidence in conclusions drawn from them.

Secondly, sensor networks may experience poor communication performance due to cross-technology radio interference, especially in office and residential environments. We consider the problem of detecting and classifying the type of interference a sensor network is exposed to. We find that different sources of interference each leave a characteristic "fingerprint" on individual, corrupt 802.15.4 packets. We design and implement the SoNIC system that enables sensor nodes to classify interference using these fingerprints. SoNIC supports accurate classification in both a controlled and an uncontrolled environment.

Finally, we consider transmission errors in an outdoor sensor network. In such an environment, errors occur despite the absence of interference if the signal-to-noise ratio at a receiver is too low. We study the characteristics of corrupt packets collected from an outdoor sensor network deployment. We find that content transformation in corrupt packets follows a specific pattern, and that most corrupt packets contain only few errors. We propose that the pattern may be useful for applications that can operate on inexact data, because it reduces the uncertainty associated with a corrupt packet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 73 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1171
Keyword
Sensor networks, Testbed, Mobility, Interference classification, Packet corruption
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230769 (URN)978-91-554-9019-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-17, Room 1311, Polacksbacken, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
WISENET
Funder
VINNOVA, P26628-4
Available from: 2014-09-24 Created: 2014-08-28 Last updated: 2015-01-23
3. A Node-Link Perspective on the Impact of Local Conditions in Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Node-Link Perspective on the Impact of Local Conditions in Sensor Networks
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sensor networks are made up of small battery-powered sensing devices with wireless communication capabilities, enabling the network to monitor the environment in which it is deployed. Through their flexible and cable-free design these networks open up for new deployment scenarios that were previously not plausible such as during a natural disaster. Motivated by scenarios where centralized oversight is not possible the focus of this thesis is to equip nodes with further adaptability to changes in the links it has with other nodes. This is achieved through contributions in three areas focusing on observations from a node-link perspective.

First, the impact the local environment has on the nodes is explored by deploying a sensor network outdoors next to a meteorological station to correlate the variations in link quality to the changes in the environment. The work identifies temperature as the main factor, where through further investigations in a controlled setting, a linear relationship between the decrease in signal quality and the increase in temperature is described.

Secondly, the thesis address how nodes in a sensor network can be motivated to exchange data by modeling it as a game. The game theoretic design is motivated by the absence of any centralized control and focus on the nodes as individual users in the network. The presented design motivates the selfish nodes to participate in the exchange of sensor data, showing that it is the best strategy.

Lastly, by exploring and understanding how connections in a mobile sensor network occur, nodes are given more flexibility to determine how to send and sample sensor data. This adaptability to contact occurrences is shown to provide better ways of sending data by selecting higher quality links as well as making sampling more energy preserving by reducing the rate in the vicinity of other nodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 57 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1398
Keyword
Sensor networks, opportunistic communication, meterlological impact, packet corruption, multi-contacts
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-300168 (URN)978-91-554-9643-2 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Public defence
2016-09-23, P2446, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CNDSWISENET
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-04 Last updated: 2016-09-08

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Hermans, FrederikWennerström, HjalmarMcNamara, LiamRohner, ChristianGunningberg, Per

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Citation style
  • apa
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