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A systematic, morphological and ecological overview of the Clavariaceae (Agaricales).
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee.
2013 (English)In: Mycologia, ISSN 0027-5514, E-ISSN 1557-2536, Vol. 105, no 4, 896-911 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Clavariaceae is a diverse family of mushroom-forming fungi composed of species that produce simple clubs, coralloid, lamellate-stipitate, hydnoid and resupinate sporocarps. Here we present a systematic and ecological overview of the Clavariaceae based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (nLSU), including nine from type collections. Forty-seven sequences from sporocarps of diverse taxa across the Clavariaceae were merged with 243 environmental sequences from GenBank and analyzed phylogenetically to determine major clades within the family. Four major clades or lineages were recovered: (i) Mucronella, (ii) Ramariopsis-Clavulinopsis, (iii) Hyphodontiella and (iv) Clavaria-Camarophyllopsis-Clavicorona. Clavaria is paraphyletic, within which the lamellate and pileate-stipitate genus Camarophyllopsis is derived and composed of two independent lineages. The monotypic genus Clavicorona also appears nested within Clavaria. The monophyly of Clavaria and Camarophyllopsis, however, cannot be statistically rejected. We compared differing classification schemes for the genera Ramariopsis and Clavulinopsis, most of which are inconsistent with the molecular phylogeny and are statistically rejected. Scytinopogon, a genus classified in the Clavariaceae by several authors, shares phylogenetic affinities with the Trechisporales. Overall 126 molecular operational taxonomic units can be recognized in the Clavariaceae, roughly half of which are known only from environmental sequences, an estimate that exceeds the known number of species in the family. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen were measured from specimens representing most major phylogenetic lineages to predict trophic strategies. These results suggest that most non-lignicolous species feature a biotrophic mode of nutrition. Ancestral state reconstruction analysis highlights the taxonomic significance of at least nine morphological traits at various depths in the family tree.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 105, no 4, 896-911 p.
National Category
Biological Systematics Evolutionary Biology
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212968DOI: 10.3852/12-070PubMedID: 23396156OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-212968DiVA: diva2:679912
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Ryberg, Martin

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