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Cdc42 and p190RhoGAP activation by CCN2 regulates cell spreading and polarity and induces actin disassembly in migrating keratinocytes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery. Division of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Division of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Division of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Division of Plastic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
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2016 (English)In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 13, no 3, 372-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cell migration requires spatiotemporal integration of signals that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. In response to a migration-promoting agent, cells begin to polarise and extend protrusions in the direction of migration. These cytoskeletal rearrangements are orchestrated by a variety of proteins, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the Rho family of GTPases. CCN2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, has emerged as a regulator of cell migration but the mechanism by which CCN2 regulates keratinocyte function is not well understood. In this article, we sought to elucidate the basicmechanism of CCN2-induced cellmigration in human keratinocytes. Immunohistochemical staining was used to demonstrate that treatment with CCN2 induces a migratory phenotype through actin disassembly, spreading of lamellipodia and re-orientation of the Golgi. In vitro assays were used to show that CCN2-induced cell migration is dependent on FAK, RhoA and Cdc42, but independent of Rac1. CCN2-treated keratinocytes displayed increased Cdc42 activity and decreased RhoA activity up to 12 hours post-treatment, with upregulation of p190RhoGAP. An improved understanding of how CCN2 regulates cell migration may establish the foundation for future therapeutics in fibrotic and neoplastic diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 13, no 3, 372-381 p.
Keyword [en]
RhoGTPase, Actin, CCN2, CTGF, Keratinocyte migration
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Plastic Surgery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213565DOI: 10.1111/iwj.12315ISI: 000379940300011PubMedID: 25185742OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-213565DiVA: diva2:682607
Available from: 2013-12-28 Created: 2013-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. CCN2 – Keratinocyte Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CCN2 – Keratinocyte Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving the migration of inflammatory cells to the wound site, deposition of extracellular matrix, and the reestablishment of an intact epithelial barrier. Re-epithelialization depends on the proliferation and directional migration of keratinocytes from the wound edges. Initially, keratinocytes migrate over a provisional wound matrix that is rich in fibronectin, and as the wound heals the provisional matrix becomes replaced by one consisting of collagen and proteoglycans. Re-epithelialization is tightly regulated by a variety of peptides such as growth factors, cytokines and proteases, and abnormalities may result in chronic non-healing wounds or hypertrophic scars. CCN2 (Connective Tissue Growth Factor) is a multifunctional protein with effects on cells and their interactions with the connective tissue. CCN2 is expressed in a variety of cell types and regulates numerous cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration and stimulation of collagen production. While the importance of CCN2 for the fibrotic response has been well studied, its involvement in keratinocyte function has not yet been fully explored. Using an in vivo wound model, the expression of CCN2 was captured at the leading keratinocyte edge during re-epithelialization. In vitro, exogenous addition of CCN2 to human keratinocyte cultures promoted keratinocyte migration. Subsequently, integrin a5b1 was identified as an important mediator of CCN2 enhancement of keratinocyte adhesion to fibronectin. CCN2 activated the FAK-MAPK signaling pathway, and pretreatment with MEK1 specific inhibitor PD98059 markedly reduced CCN2-promoted keratinocyte migration. In vitro, CCN2 expression was induced by TGF-β1. Compared with inhibiting the SMAD pathway, blocking MAPK was more effective in reducing TGF-β1-induced CCN2 mRNA and protein expression. In addition, CCN2-induced keratinocyte spreading required FAK. Treatment with CCN2 led to actin disassembly and altered the activity of the Rho proteins and p190RhoGAP in keratinocytes. Furthermore, Cdc42 mediated CCN2-induced cell polarity. In conclusion, using in vivo and in vitro models, CCN2 was shown to regulate keratinocyte function by promoting keratinocyte adhesion, spreading and migration. A complete understanding of CCN2 expression in keratinocytes is crucial in order to develop novel therapies for wound healing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 968
Keyword
CCN2, connective tissue growth factor, keratinocytes, re-epithelialization, cell migration, cell signaling
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Plastic Surgery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213566 (URN)978-91-554-8853-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, Skoogsalen, Akademiska sjukhuset; Ingång 78-79, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2013-12-28 Last updated: 2014-02-10

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Kiwanuka, ElizabethGerdin, Bengt

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