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The emotion regulation questionnaire: Psychometric properties and norms for Swedish parents of children aged 10-13 years
Karolinska Institutet.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5331-0158
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
2013 (English)In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 9, no 2, 289-303 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the internal consistency and factor structure of the Swedish version of the 10-item Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and its relation to family warmth and conflict, marital satisfaction, and parental discipline strategies, in addition to obtaining norms from the general population of parents of children aged 10-13 years. The ERQ has two subscales measuring an individual’s use of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression as emotion regulation strategies. A random non-referred sample of parents of 1433 children aged 10-13 years completed the ERQ and other questions targeting the family functioning and couple adjustment (Warmth/Conflict in the family; Dyadic Adjustment Scale-short form) and parental strategies (Parent Practices Interview). The results indicated adequate internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha) of the two subscales (cognitive reappraisal .81; expressive suppression .73). Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in close to acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.089; CFI = 0.912; GFI = 0.93). Norms are presented as percentiles for mothers and fathers. The ERQ cognitive reappraisal scale correlated positively with marital adjustment (DAS), family warmth, appropriate discipline (PPI), and negatively with harsh discipline (PPI). The ERQ expressive suppression subscale was negatively correlated with marital satisfaction (DAS) and family warmth, and positively with harsh discipline (PPI). To conclude, this study showed the adequate reliability and construct validity of the ERQ in a large sample of Swedish parents. Specific use of suppression or reappraisal as a parental emotion regulation strategy was related to couple satisfaction, warmth in the family and employment of adequate discipline strategies in expected direction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 9, no 2, 289-303 p.
Keyword [en]
emotion regulation, parents, rating scales, psychometrics, confirmatory factor analysis
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214101DOI: 10.5964/ejop.v9i2.535OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-214101DiVA: diva2:684058
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2015-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Family Check-Up and iComet: Effectiveness as well as Psychometrics and Norms for Parent Rating Scales
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Family Check-Up and iComet: Effectiveness as well as Psychometrics and Norms for Parent Rating Scales
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis compromise four studies, three regarding psychometrics and norms of parent rating scales, and one study regarding effectiveness of two different interventions. A normative sample consisting of 1443 parents with children aged 10 to 13 years old, was used in the Study I, II and III. In Study IV, 231 self-referred parents with children aged 10-13 years old with externalizing behavior problem (EBP) were randomized to either Family Check-Up (FCU) or iComet.

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used in Study I proved to be a reliable and valid instrument with high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other similar instruments. In addition, the results support the online use of SDQ as well as using norms obtained through traditional administration even when the SDQ has been administrated online. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) investigated in Study II was shown to have adequate reliability and construct validity. The specific use of expressive suppression or cognitive reappraisal as a parental emotion regulation strategy was correlated as expected to the couple’s satisfaction, family warmth, and the employment of adequate discipline strategies. Swedish norms for self-rated ERQs are also presented. Study III investigated the Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale (PKMS), which was shown to be a useful instrument for assessing parental knowledge and its sources. Family climate appears to moderate important relationships between parental knowledge and conduct problems with implications for such things as family interventions. Finally, a person-oriented analysis was used in Study IV to subtype the children according to combinations of prosocial behavior and EBP, such as different levels of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors. Despite being a heterogeneous group of children with EBP, they were meaningfully grouped into significantly different profiles. Both FCU and iComet resulted in post-treatment measurement within non-clinical range for three of the five profiles. The two profiles that included high levels of ADHD behaviors at baseline assessment continued to have residual symptoms post intervention. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 89 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 105
Norms, rating scales, conduct problems, parent management training, intervention, SDQ, ERQ, parental knowledge and monitoring
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235012 (URN)978-91-554-9096-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-12, 12:128, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2015-02-03

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