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Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5331-0158
Karolinska Institutet.
Karolinska Institutet.
2013 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, 40- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.


A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).


The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.


The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 7, 40- p.
Keyword [en]
Psychometrics, Conduct Problems, online assessment, norms, Disruptive Behavior Disorder
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Clinical Psychology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214107DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-7-40OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-214107DiVA: diva2:684073
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2015-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Family Check-Up and iComet: Effectiveness as well as Psychometrics and Norms for Parent Rating Scales
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Family Check-Up and iComet: Effectiveness as well as Psychometrics and Norms for Parent Rating Scales
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis compromise four studies, three regarding psychometrics and norms of parent rating scales, and one study regarding effectiveness of two different interventions. A normative sample consisting of 1443 parents with children aged 10 to 13 years old, was used in the Study I, II and III. In Study IV, 231 self-referred parents with children aged 10-13 years old with externalizing behavior problem (EBP) were randomized to either Family Check-Up (FCU) or iComet.

The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used in Study I proved to be a reliable and valid instrument with high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other similar instruments. In addition, the results support the online use of SDQ as well as using norms obtained through traditional administration even when the SDQ has been administrated online. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) investigated in Study II was shown to have adequate reliability and construct validity. The specific use of expressive suppression or cognitive reappraisal as a parental emotion regulation strategy was correlated as expected to the couple’s satisfaction, family warmth, and the employment of adequate discipline strategies. Swedish norms for self-rated ERQs are also presented. Study III investigated the Parental Knowledge and Monitoring Scale (PKMS), which was shown to be a useful instrument for assessing parental knowledge and its sources. Family climate appears to moderate important relationships between parental knowledge and conduct problems with implications for such things as family interventions. Finally, a person-oriented analysis was used in Study IV to subtype the children according to combinations of prosocial behavior and EBP, such as different levels of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors. Despite being a heterogeneous group of children with EBP, they were meaningfully grouped into significantly different profiles. Both FCU and iComet resulted in post-treatment measurement within non-clinical range for three of the five profiles. The two profiles that included high levels of ADHD behaviors at baseline assessment continued to have residual symptoms post intervention. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 89 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 105
Norms, rating scales, conduct problems, parent management training, intervention, SDQ, ERQ, parental knowledge and monitoring
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235012 (URN)978-91-554-9096-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-12-12, 12:128, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2015-02-03

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