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Qualitative differences in pup-retrieval strategies in a maternal separation paradigm
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. (Neuropharmacology, Addiction and Behaviour)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. (Neuropharmacology, Addiction and Behaviour)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. (Neuropharmacology, Addiction and Behaviour)
2013 (English)In: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, ISSN 2160-5866, E-ISSN 2160-5874, Vol. 3, 603-616 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rodent maternal separation (MS) paradigm is frequently used to investigate the impact of early-life conditions in the offspring. One critical issue is whether the effects seen in the offspring are a result of maternal contact deprivation and/or altered pup-directed maternal behavior. To address this question we used an innovative approach with a qualita-tive analysis of pup-retrieval strategies in a test situation related to risk for the pups. The dams were separated from their litters for 0 (MS0) or 360 (MS360) min, respectively. The pups were placed in a risk area in the multivariate con-centric square field™ test at two test occasions and the pup-retrieval strategies were recorded. No significant evident differences between MS0 and MS360 dams were found. However, there were clearly two different strategies, either removing the pups out of potential danger or into safety, and these strategies were represented in both MS groups. As compared to the MS0 dams, the MS360 dams did not change their strategies and left more pups in the risk area in both pup-retrieval tests. This implies different pup-retrieval strategies depending on early-life conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 3, 603-616 p.
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214125DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.38064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-214125DiVA: diva2:684209
Available from: 2014-01-07 Created: 2014-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Early Environment and Adolescent Ethanol Consumption : Effects on Endogenous Opioids and Behaviour in Rats
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Environment and Adolescent Ethanol Consumption : Effects on Endogenous Opioids and Behaviour in Rats
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Excessive and compulsive ethanol drinking is one of the most serious public health issues. Therefore, it is vital to increase the knowledge about risks and protection for alcohol use disorders (AUD) to optimize prevention and treatment strategies. Ethanol consumption commonly initiates during adolescence when extensive neuronal maturation and development also occurs. Early exposure to ethanol is a risk factor for AUD, but the effects of adolescent drinking and the basis for the individual susceptibility to AUD are not fully understood. The interactions between genotype and environmental factors determine the individual risk for AUD and this thesis aimed to examine the environmental impact. The specific aims were to investigate 1) how early-life conditions affect adolescent voluntary ethanol drinking, behavioural profiles, endogenous opioids and response to treatment with an opioid antagonist (naltrexone), and 2) whether alterations detected in the offspring may be mediated by variations in maternal behaviour. A rodent maternal separation (MS) model was used to mimic a protective and risk-inducing early-life environment, respectively, with the use of 15 min (MS15) or 360 min (MS360) of daily MS. The main findings were 1) the MS360, but not the MS15 rats, responded to naltrexone following adolescent ethanol drinking; all adolescent rats had a high voluntary ethanol intake independent of early environmental conditions whereas in the adult groups the MS360, but not the MS15 rats, increased their ethanol intake and preference over time; adolescent ethanol exposure resulted in higher dynorphin levels in hippocampus and higher Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 in the amygdala, independently of rearing conditions, 2) behavioural profiling using the multivariate concentric square field™ test showed: the young MS360 rats had increased risk assessment and risk taking behaviour compared to the young MS15 rats; the young MS15 rats increased, whereas the young MS360 rats decreased, their risk assessment and risk taking behaviour over time; differences in pup-retrieval strategies where the MS360 dams retrieved some pups into a safe area but as compared to MS15 rats they left more pups in a risk area; increased risk assessment behaviour in the MS360 dams immediately after weaning. Taken together, early-life environmental conditions alter adult but not adolescent drinking, the response to naltrexone, and behaviour in dams and offspring. Adolescent rats consumed more ethanol independent of rearing conditions and displayed increased opioid levels in brain areas related to cognition and addiction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 171
Keyword
Alcohol, intermittent ethanol access, maternal separation, multivariate concentric square field™ test, maternal behavior, ultrasonic vocalization, adolescent, neonatal handling
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Pharmaceutical Pharmacology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198670 (URN)978-91-554-8678-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-06-14, B22, BMC, Husargatan, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-24 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Daoura, LoudinNylander, IngridRoman, Erika

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