Hip hop feminism in Sweden: Intersectionality, feminist critique and female masculinity
2014 (English)In: The European Journal of Women's Studies, ISSN 1350-5068, E-ISSN 1461-7420, Vol. 21, no 3, 233-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Hip hop has grown into a worldwide genre in recent decades, often being associated with issues of race and class. However, as research on ‘hip hop feminism’ in the US context demonstrates, the categories of gender and sexuality are no less fundamental. In the growing body of international hip hop research, though, questions about gender have been relatively absent, and relatively little is known about how gender norms are negotiated and challenged in hip hop in Europe. This article seeks to contribute to filling this gap in the literature by exploring how women negotiate the gender norms of hip hop in the case of Sweden. To this end, rap lyrics by 12 female rap artists are analysed through poststructuralist discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on intersectionality, feminism within and beyond hip hop, as well as the possibilities and limitations of female masculinity. It is shown how the masculine norms of the genre are simultaneously resisted and resignified as many female rappers incorporate some elements commonly associated with masculinity but mobilize them in their challenging of masculine norms. In this way, complying with the genre interestingly produces a hard and explicit feminism in which ‘all sexist pigs will be slaughtered’.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 21, no 3, 233-250 p.
female masculinity, feminism, hip hop, intersectionality, rap lyrics, Sweden, women in hip hop
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214568DOI: 10.1177/1350506813518761ISI: 000340132400003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-214568DiVA: diva2:685085