Spin–torque oscillators offer a unique combination of nanosize, ultrafast modulation rates and ultrawide band signal generation from 100MHz to close to 100 GHz. However, their low output power and large phase noise still limit their applicability to fundamental studies of spin-transfer torque and magnetodynamic phenomena. A possible solution to both problems is the spin-wave-mediated mutual synchronization of multiple spin–torque oscillators through a shared excited ferromagnetic layer. To date, synchronization of high-frequency spin–torque oscillators has only been achieved for two nanocontacts. As fabrication using expensive top–down lithography processes is not readily available to many groups, attempts to syn- chronize a large number of nanocontacts have been all but abandoned. Here we present an alternative, simple and cost-effective bottom-up method to realize large ensembles of synchronized nanocontact spin–torque oscillators. We demonstrate mutual synchronization of three high-frequency nanocontact spin–torque oscillators and pairwise synchronization in devices with four and five nanocontacts.
2013. Vol. 4