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Differential effects of floral display on female and male reproductive success in the hermaphroditic herb Primula farinosa
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
Stockholm University, Department of Ecology, Environmental and Plant Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A prominent floral display increases attractiveness to pollinators, but may be associated with a cost in terms of increased risk of damage from antagonists.  If damage to reproductive parts by grazers and seed predators mostly occurs after pollen dispersal, a large floral display may benefit both female and male reproductive functions, while costs may predominantly be expressed through female function. The hermaphroditic herb Primula farinosa is dimorphic for floral display with a long-scaped morph, which displays its flowers well above the ground, and a short-scaped morph, which displays its flowers close to the ground. We conducted a field experiment with genotyped plants at two sites to examine whether scape morph differentially affects female and male reproductive success and whether the two scape morphs mate assortatively. Female reproductive success was assessed by quantifying seed production and male siring success by genotyping offspring. The intensity of seed predation differed between experimental sites (59% vs. 9% of fruits attacked), whereas differences in grazing damage were smaller and not statistically significant (9% vs. 6%). At the site where seed predation was high, the long-scaped morph produced significantly fewer seeds, but sired more offspring than did the short-scaped morph. At the other site, the two morphs did not differ significantly in seed production or siring success. The scape morphs did not mate assortatively. The results indicate that interactions with pollinators and antagonists can differentially affect selection on floral display through male and female function and could potentially lead to a relationship between floral display and plant functional gender. They further demonstrate that a full understanding of selection on floral traits requires that selection through both male and female reproductive success is considered.

Keyword [en]
Assortative mating, Biotic interactions, Functional gender, Paternity analyses, Siring success
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-215432OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-215432DiVA: diva2:687213
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2014-02-10
In thesis
1. Genetic Variation and Evolution of Floral Display in Primula farinosa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic Variation and Evolution of Floral Display in Primula farinosa
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, I combine molecular analyses, common-garden and field experiments to examine how evolutionary and ecological processes influence patterns of genetic variation among and within populations of the declining, insect-pollinated, self-incompatible, perennial herb Primula farinosa. More specifically I examined 1) whether genetic diversity at neutral marker loci was related to habitat fragmentation and habitat stability, 2) whether floral display and flowering time were more strongly differentiated among populations than were putatively neutral marker loci, 3) whether adaptive population differentiation could be detected on a local spatial scale, and 4) whether floral display differentially affected male and female reproductive success.

Genetic diversity at neutral marker loci was lower within fragmented populations on the Swedish mainland than within the more densely occurring populations on the island Öland, SE Sweden. On Öland, fluctuations in population size were more pronounced on thin than on deep soils, but genetic diversity was not related to soil depth. Among-population genetic differentiation in scape length and flowering time was stronger than that of neutral marker loci, which is consistent with divergent selection acting on these traits. Water availability should influence the length of the growing season and thus the time available for fruit maturation, but flowering time in a common-garden experiment was not related to estimates of water availability at sites of origin. In a reciprocal transplant experiment conducted among four populations separated by up to a few kilometres and growing in environment differing in water availability and grazing intensity, no evidence of local adaption was observed. Finally, in a field experiment, interactions with pollinators and antagonists differentially affected selection on floral display through male and female function.

Taken together, the results indicate that habitat connectivity and environmental heterogeneity contribute to high neutral and adaptive genetic variation in Primula farinosa on the island Öland, SE Sweden, and illustrate that effects on both male and female reproductive success need to be considered to understand fully the evolution of floral display.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 40 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1112
Keyword
natural selection, flowering time, population differentiation, local adaptation, male reproductive success
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-215508 (URN)978-91-554-8850-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-02-28, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-01-14 Last updated: 2014-02-10

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