Snow measurements techniques for land-surface-atmosphere exchange process studies in boreal landscapes
2001 (English)In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 70, 215-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Snow has been studied widely in hydrology for many decades whereas recent meteorological interest in snow is caused by increased emphasis on high latitudes and wintertime in climate-change research as well as by the need to improve weather-forecast models during these conditions. Ground-based measurements of snow properties are needed both to improve understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange processes and to provide ground truth to new remote-sensing algorithms. This justifies a review of techniques to measure snow in combination with establishment of criteria for the suitability of the methods for process studies. This review assesses the state-of-art in ground-based snow-measurement techniques in the end of the 1990s in view of their accuracy, time resolution, possibility to automate, practicality and suitability in different terrain. Methods for snow-pack water equivalent, depth, density, growth, quality, liquid-water content and water leaving the snow pack are reviewed. Synoptic snow measurements in Fennoscandian countries are widely varying and there is no single standard on which process-related studies can build. A long-term, continuous monitoring of mass and energy properties of a snow cover requires a combination of point-measurement techniques. Areally representative values of snow properties can be achieved through a combination of automatically collected point data with repeated manual, areally covering measurements, remote-sensing data and digital elevation models, preferably in a GIS framework.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 70, 215-230 p.
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-41523DOI: 10.1007/s007040170016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-41523DiVA: diva2:69424