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Snow measurements techniques for land-surface-atmosphere exchange process studies in boreal landscapes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. AIR AND WATER SCIENCE.
2001 (English)In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 70, 215-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Snow has been studied widely in hydrology for many decades whereas recent meteorological interest in snow is caused by increased emphasis on high latitudes and wintertime in climate-change research as well as by the need to improve weather-forecast models during these conditions. Ground-based measurements of snow properties are needed both to improve understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange processes and to provide ground truth to new remote-sensing algorithms. This justifies a review of techniques to measure snow in combination with establishment of criteria for the suitability of the methods for process studies. This review assesses the state-of-art in ground-based snow-measurement techniques in the end of the 1990s in view of their accuracy, time resolution, possibility to automate, practicality and suitability in different terrain. Methods for snow-pack water equivalent, depth, density, growth, quality, liquid-water content and water leaving the snow pack are reviewed. Synoptic snow measurements in Fennoscandian countries are widely varying and there is no single standard on which process-related studies can build. A long-term, continuous monitoring of mass and energy properties of a snow cover requires a combination of point-measurement techniques. Areally representative values of snow properties can be achieved through a combination of automatically collected point data with repeated manual, areally covering measurements, remote-sensing data and digital elevation models, preferably in a GIS framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 70, 215-230 p.
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-41523DOI: 10.1007/s007040170016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-41523DiVA: diva2:69424
Available from: 2008-06-12 Created: 2008-06-12 Last updated: 2014-05-19Bibliographically approved

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Halldin, Sven
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