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Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Regional Cancer Center , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
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2014 (English)In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 66, no 1, 77-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 66, no 1, 77-87 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-217622DOI: 10.1080/01635581.2014.851712ISI: 000329141100009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-217622DiVA: diva2:694312
Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Patterns: Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Patterns: Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We eat foods not nutrients. What is more, we eat them in combinations. Consequently, capturing our complex food habits is likely an advantage in nutrition research. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to investigate dietary patterns in the Swedish population –nutrient intakes, nutritional biomarkers and health aspects.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the developed world. However, the impact of dietary factors on disease risk is largely unknown. In Study I we investigated the association between a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern and prostate cancer risk, in a cohort of elderly Swedish men. The latter (but not the former) was associated, inversely, with prostate cancer risk when taking validity in food records into account.

Diet is one of our main exposure routes to environmental contaminants. Hence, such exposure could act as a mediating factor in the relation between diet and health. In Study II we investigated the association between; a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern, as well as the official dietary recommendations, and circulating levels of environmental contaminants, in an elderly Swedish population. The first two patterns were positively related to levels of both persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, whilst the dietary recommendations were inversely associated to dioxin and lead.

Finally, although dietary patterns are likely to influence health, little is known about current dietary patterns in Sweden. In Study III we used a data-reduction method to identify dietary patterns in a nationwide sample of the Swedish population. Two major patterns were derived; a Healthy pattern of foods generally considered healthy (e.g. vegetables, fruits, fish and vegetable-oils) and a Swedish traditional pattern (with e.g. meats, potatoes, sauces, non-Keyhole milk-products, sweet-bakery products and margarine). Derived patterns were associated to population characteristics and the Healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated to anthropometric variables in Study IV. Dietary characteristics of the patterns were well reflected in correlations to nutrient intake and (to a lesser extent) in nutritional biomarkers.

In conclusion dietary patterns for overall health should be considered, as well as other lifestyle-factors, when interpreting results in nutrition epidemiology and establishing dietary recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1104
Keyword
Dietary Pattern, Dietary Recommendations, Dietary Survey, Environmental Contaminants, Healthy Diet Indicator, Heatlhy dietary pattern, Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean diet, Nutritional Biomarkers, Obesity, Overweight, Principal Component Analysis, Prostate Cancer, Sweden, Traditional dietary pattern
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science; Nutrition
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-250280 (URN)978-91-554-9242-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-04, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-04-14 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved

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Ax, ErikaGarmo, HansGrundmark, BirgittaBill-Axelson, AnnaHolmberg, LarsBecker, WulfZethelius, BjörnCederholm, TommySjögren, Per

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