Nanocomposites of Cellulose and Conducting Polymer for Electrical Energy Storage
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The world’s increased energy storage demand, as well as the environmental concerns related to the combustion of fossil fuels, has triggered a transition to intermittent renewable energy sources as well as to electrical and hybrid vehicles. Current day rechargeable batteries are, due to the invention and development of lithium ion batteries, technologically well positioned to answer to some of these demands. Conventional batteries, however, utilize inorganic materials of limited supply that require large amounts of energy during refining and processing. The materials also add a significant cost to the final product, making the rechargeable batteries less attractive for large scale applications. During the last decade, significant efforts have been made to find suitable organic matter based electrode materials that can replace the inorganic materials. One class of organic materials that can be used for electrical energy storage, or be included as components in organic matter based energy storage systems, is conducting polymers.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of using the conducting polymer polypyrrole in energy storage applications. The polymer was synthesized onto cellulose extracted from the Cladophora sp. algae, and the result was a flexible composite material. Symmetrical energy storage devices constructed with the composite material were shown to exhibit a pseudocapacitive behavior. The resistance in the cells was investigated and was found to scale linearly with the separator thickness. Cells could be cycled for 4,000 cycles without significant capacitance loss and cells that were overcharged to 1.8 V cell potential, were found to be protected by a resistive potential drop. Devices were constructed as proof-of-concept and were used to power a remote control and a digital thermometer.
The self-discharge in polypyrrole was studied extensively. It was found that oxygen was responsible for the oxidation of the reduced electrode, while the positive electrode self-discharged due to a faradaic reaction. Through spectroscopy and the temperature dependence of the self-discharge, it was suggested that the self-discharge of oxidized polypyrrole is linked to the degradation at high potentials, commonly referred to as overoxidation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 60 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1125
Polypyrrole, Nanocomposites, Energy storage, Conducting polymers, Cellulose
Research subject Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218815ISBN: 978-91-554-8883-3OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-218815DiVA: diva2:697449
2014-04-04, Å4001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
Nyholm, LeifStrømme, MariaSjödin, Martin
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