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Field Operational Testing for Safety Improvement of Freight Trains using Wireless Monitoring by Sensor Network
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2013 (English)In: IET Wireless Sensor Systems, ISSN 2043-6386, E-ISSN 2043-6394Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, the majority of wagon failures on railroad systems are because of the poor maintenance of ball bearings, which causes emergent stops and delays. The existing stationary detectors, lack in predicting failures which cause troubles in scheduling maintenance. During the fall of 2011, a trial was performed by applying a wireless sensor network (WSN) aboard a train wagon with the objective to demonstrate a proof of concept for monitoring the temperature of ball bearings aboard the train wagon. This trial investigates several key aspects when applying sensor networks such as radio wave propagation, energy scavenging and performance of the WSN aboard the wagon. Two wireless links were used in the WSN. The aboard network communicates at 2.45 GHz, and the external communication is an 868 MHz radio frequency identification radio link. Since the energy in the WSN node is limited, appropriate energy scavenging devices are also presented and evaluated in a lab environment. Effort has been made to overcome these problems. The energy consumption in the network is still a problem; the most promising energy scavenging technique is piezoelectric harvesting by vibrations, which in the experiments scavenged 2.32 mW.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013.
Keyword [en]
Wireless sensor network, train
National Category
Communication Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218887DOI: 10.1049/iet-wss.2013.0048OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-218887DiVA: diva2:697737
Projects
Wisenet
Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Harsh Environments and Antenna Measurement Techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Harsh Environments and Antenna Measurement Techniques
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless sensor network (WSN) has become a hot topic lately. By using WSN things that previously were difficult or impossible to measure has now become available. One of the main reasons using WSN for monitoring is to save money by cost optimization and/or increase safety by letting the user knowing the physical status of the monitored structure. This thesis considers four main topics, empirical testing of WSN in harsh environments, antenna designs, antenna measurements and radio environment emulation.

The WSN has been tested in train environment for monitoring of ball bearings and inside jet engines to monitor strain of blades and temperatures. In total, two investigations have been performed aboard the train wagon and one in the jet engine. The trials have been successful and provide knowledge of the difficulties with practical WSN applications. The key issues for WSN are robust communication, energy management (including scavenging) and physical robustness.

For the applications of WSN in harsh environments antennas has to be designed. In the thesis, two antennas has been designed, one for train environment and one for the receiver in the jet engine. In the train environment, a more isotropic radiation pattern is preferable; hence a small dual layered patch antenna is designed. The antenna is at the limit of being electrically small; hence slightly lower radiation efficiency is measured. For the WSN in the jet engine, a directive patch array is designed on an ultra-thin and flexible substrate. The thin substrate of the antenna causes rather lower radiation efficiency. But the antenna fulfils the requirements of being conformal and directive.

In reverberation chambers are used to measure antennas, but there are difficulties to provide a realistic radio environment, for example outdoor or on-body. In this thesis, a large reverberation chamber is designed and verified. It enables measurement between 400 MHz and 3 GHz. Also, a sample selection method is designed to provide a post processing possibilities to emulate the radio environment inside the chamber. The method is to select samples from a data set that corresponds to a desired probability density function. The method presented in this thesis is extremely fast but the implementation of the method is left for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 75 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1126
Keyword
Wireless Sensor Network, Antenna, Jet engine, Train, Reverberation chamber, WISENET, Wisejet
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications Communication Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218891 (URN)978-91-554-8884-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-04, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
WISENETWiseJet
Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2014-04-29

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Grudén, MathiasHinnemo, MalkolmDancila, DragosRydberg, Anders

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