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Moxifloxacin Population Pharmacokinetics and Model-Based Comparison of Efficacy between Moxifloxacin and Ofloxacin in African Patients
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2014 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 58, no 1, 503-510 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Pharmacokinetic exposure and the MIC of fluoroquinolones are important determinants of their efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Population modeling was used to describe the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in 241 tuberculosis (TB) patients in southern Africa. Monte Carlo simulations were applied to obtain the area under the unbound concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fAUC(0-24)) after daily doses of 400 mg or 800 mg moxifloxacin and 800 mg ofloxacin. The MIC distributions of ofloxacin and moxifloxacin were determined for 197 drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For a specific MIC, the probability of target attainment (PTA) was determined for target fAUC(0-24)/MIC ratios of >= 53 and >= 100. The PTAs were combined with the MIC distributions to calculate the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Even with the less stringent target ratio of >= 53, moxifloxacin at 400 mg and ofloxacin at 800 mg achieved CFRs of only 84% and 58% for multidrug-resistant isolates with resistance to an injectable drug, while the 800-mg moxifloxacin dose achieved a CFR of 98%. Using a target ratio of >= 100 for multidrug-resistant strains (without resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones), the CFR was 88% for moxifloxacin and only 43% for ofloxacin, and the higher dose of 800 mg moxifloxacin was needed to achieve a CFR target of >90%. Our results indicate that moxifloxacin is more efficacious than ofloxacin in the treatment of MDR-TB. Further studies should determine the optimal pharmacodynamic target for moxifloxacin in a multidrug regimen and clarify safety issues when it is administered at higher doses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, no 1, 503-510 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Pharmaceutical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218957DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01478-13ISI: 000329581100064OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-218957DiVA: diva2:698191
Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2016-01-15

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Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.
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