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Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
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2014 (Norwegian)In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 4, 207-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8 % of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 23, no 4, 207-217 p.
Keyword [en]
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, adolescents, comorbitidy, transcription factor AP-2β, 
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219063DOI: 10.1007/s00787-013-0450-6ISI: 000334175700004PubMedID: 23824473OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-219063DiVA: diva2:699624
Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Co-occurring Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Depression: Sex, Aetiology, Help-Seeking and Assessment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-occurring Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Depression: Sex, Aetiology, Help-Seeking and Assessment
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general aim of the thesis was to contribute to the knowledge about co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in adolescence, focusing on sex differences, as well as aetiology, help-seeking and assessment.

Studies I–III used epidemiological samples of self-reports from all students in Västmanland aged 15–16 and 17–18 years. Study I investigated the prevalence of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression, as well as associations between co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression and one environmental stress factor; experience of sexual abuse. Study II examined associations between one biological factor—a polymorphism in TFAP-2βand co-occurring symptoms of ADHD with andco-occurringsymptoms of depression. Study III investigated the association between the parent–adolescent relationship and seeking help from specialized mental health services in relation to symptoms of ADHD and/or depression. Study IV was a clinical study among adolescent psychiatric patients that compared self-reported ADHD symptoms via the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale–Adolescent version (ASRS-A) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale–Adolescent–Screening version (ASRS-A-S) with an ADHD diagnosis determined by the gold-standard method; the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview.

Studies I–III showed that the phenotype of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression is frequent, with a distinct preponderance among girls. Approximately 50% of both boys and girls with co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression had also experienced sexual abuse, indicating that this is a group with multiple risk factors for long-term impaired mental health.

Results also support biological sex differences because girls with symptoms of ADHD and a common polymorphism of TFAP-2β (absence of a 9 repeat) reported more symptoms of depression, but boys did not.

Further, only 5% of the adolescents with symptoms of ADHD and/or depression sought help from specialized mental health services. The co-occurrence of symptoms of ADHD and depression was a stronger predictor of help-seeking than all other psychosocial factors investigated, including secure attachment cognitions styles to parents. Among help-seeking girls, co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression were more common than symptoms of ADHD without co-occurring symptoms of depression.

The ASRS-A/ASRS-A-S showed promising psychometric properties for further validation in adolescentsresults as a screening tool for use in adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 90 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 976
Keyword
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, adolescent, sex, sexual abuse, transcription factor AP-2β, help-seeking, attachment object, validation study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Child and Youth Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219389 (URN)978-91-554-8892-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-11, Aros Congress Center, Munkgatan 7, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-21 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2014-04-29

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Nilsson, Kent W.Sonnby, KarinComasco, EricaLeppert, JerzyOreland, Lars

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Centre for Clinical Research, County of VästmanlandDepartment of NeuroscienceNeuro-psycho-pharmacology
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