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Investigating the impact of heat demand reductions on Swedish district heating production using a set of typical system models
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group (BEESG))
2014 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 118, 246-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Union (EU) aims at reducing its CO2 emissions and use of primary energy. The EU also aims to improve the energy efficiency in buildings and promote the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants in district heating (DH) systems. Due to significant differences among DH systems regarding fuel use and heat production units, results for one individual DH systems are not generally valid for other DH systems. Therefore, there is a need to generally describe entire DH sectors in a way that considers the heat production plant merit-orders of the individual DH systems. Here, four models of typical DH systems are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. A scenario for stepwise heat demand reductions due to building energy efficiency improvements is studied. The results show that heat demand reductions in Swedish DH systems generally reduce global CO2 emissions and mainly reduce the use of biomass and fossil fuels, while the use of waste and industrial waste heat (IWH) is less influenced. The results further show that in order to maximise the reduction of CO2 emissions by energy conservation in buildings, the heat production technologies of the DH system should be considered. A large share of CHP production with a high electricity-to-heat output ratio decreases the possibilities to reduce global CO2 emissions through heat demand reductions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014. Vol. 118, 246-257 p.
Keyword [en]
district heating, heat demand, Building energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, Combined heat and power
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Solid State Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219717DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.077ISI: 000332435000025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-219717DiVA: diva2:703005
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2014-03-05 Created: 2014-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. System Effects of Improved Energy Efficiency in Swedish District-Heated Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Effects of Improved Energy Efficiency in Swedish District-Heated Buildings
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To alleviate global warming, European-Union member states must reduce primary energy use, emit less carbon dioxide (CO2), and increase renewable energy use. Buildings constitute a great potential for energy savings, but saving energy in district-heated buildings influences combined heat and power (CHP) production, other electricity generation, and global CO2 emissions.

 

This thesis investigates the system effects from Swedish district heating production caused by district heating demand changes due to energy conservation in buildings. The cost-optimising linear programming modelling tools MODEST and FMS, the latter developed in the context of this thesis, are used to describe present district heating production and to investigate the impact of heat-demand reductions in twelve Swedish district heating systems, four of them representing all Swedish district heating.

 

Energy savings in district-heated, multi-family residential buildings yield a lower, more seasonally levelled district heating demand. These demand changes mainly reduce use of fossil-fuel and biomass for heat production. CHP production is significantly reduced if it supplies intermediate or peak district heating load. The αsystem value (ratio between generated CHP electricity and produced district heating) increases by demand reductions if CHP mainly supplies base district heating load. CO2 emissions due to district heat production depend on the approach used for CO2 assessment of electricity, and are generally reduced with heat demand reductions, unless the share of CHP production is large and the reduced fuel use yields smaller emission reductions than the emission increase from power production that replaces reduced CHP generation.

 

In total, heat demand reductions reduce CO2 emissions due to Swedish district heating, and the district heating systems even constitute a carbon sink at certain energy conservation levels. If saved biomass replaces fossil fuels elsewhere, a lower heat demand reduces CO2 emissions for every studied district heating system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 91 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1161
Keyword
district heating, carbon dioxide emissions, building energy efficiency, combined heat and power
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-229477 (URN)978-91-554-8996-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-26, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2014-09-17 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2017-01-19

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261913009938

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Åberg, Magnus

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