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Creating Digital Traces of Ideas: Evaluation of Computer Input Methods in Creative and Non-Creative Drawing
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media, Human-Computer Interaction.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7616-5045
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ideas are formed in a process of idea generation that includes creation, development, and communication of new ideas. Drawing has been used as a support for ideation for centuries. Today, computerized tools are commonly used for drawing. Such tools form a user interface between the human and the resulting drawing presented on the screen. The interface may come between the user and the drawing in a disruptive way also affecting the ideation process.

Using controlled laboratory studies, this thesis investigates the consequences of drawing with different user interfaces in two types of tasks: creative drawing tasks (based on a standardized test of creativity) and non-creative drawing tasks (i.e. shape-tracing tasks where no new idea is created). The goal was to identify and evaluate the consequences of the several issues originating from the use of different input devices, the functionality of the graphical user interfaces, the formulation of the drawing task, and the user’s previous experience.

The results showed that drawing tasks are oriented toward quality of outcomes and that higher input accuracy led to higher quality of outcomes of both creative and non-creative drawing tasks. This came with a trade-off between the quantity and quality. In ideation, less accurate input devices facilitated significantly more ideas but these were of lower quality. In non-creative tracing, higher speeds caused lower quality of outcomes.

The users subjectively preferred higher accuracy, also when an inaccurate user interface offered an eraser function. However, using the eraser allowed avoiding reinterpretations of ideas and led to ideation strategies characterized by laborious drawing that negatively affected the quality and quantity of the ideas produced. For non-creative drawing, the more difficult the shapes were, the lower the tracing accuracy.

In the thesis a new framework for interaction analysis is introduced that improves the theoretical and practical understanding of computerized drawing tasks and the phenomena resulting from different aspects of the user interface design of computerized drawing tools.

This thesis demonstrates that the inaccuracy of computerized tools cannot only make our drawings less aesthetically pleasing but also negatively affect ideas that are created in the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 110 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 94
Keyword [en]
evaluation, user performance, input methods, mouse, stylus, touch, tracing, ideation
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220882ISBN: 978-91-554-8911-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-220882DiVA: diva2:706857
Public defence
2014-05-15, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-23 Created: 2014-03-22 Last updated: 2014-09-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Activity or Product?: Drawing and HCI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activity or Product?: Drawing and HCI
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of MIDI '13: Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, 29-38 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Drawing tasks are rarely addressed experimentally by the HCI community, and even then pointing, steering, or gesturing is promoted as an approach towards drawing. We critically analyze the status quo, propose an improved framework for task analysis, and give suggestions on how to perceive drawing task at a meta-level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013
Keyword
Pointing, steering, gesturing, tracing, drawing, W6
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207259 (URN)10.1145/2500342.2500346 (DOI)978-1-4503-2303-1 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation MIDI '13, 24-25 June, 2013, Warsaw, Poland
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
2. Careless touch: a comparative evaluation of mouse, pen, and touch input in shape tracing task
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Careless touch: a comparative evaluation of mouse, pen, and touch input in shape tracing task
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (OzCHI '11) / [ed] Cécile Paris, Nathalie Colineau, Vivienne Farrell, Graham Farrell and Weidong Huang, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2011, 329-332 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This short paper is a work-in-progress report on an experimental, exploratory comparison and evaluation of three input methods (mouse, pen, and touch-input) in a line-tracing task. A method to compare the original shape and user-generated version is presented. Measurements of user efficiency and accuracy showed that participants replicating a particular shape using touch-input performed the worst in terms of accuracy but were the fastest in comparison to the remaining input methods. No effect of controlled visual feedback was observed. Additionally, subjective operational biases were observed that, together with input method and expected shape related issues, might strongly affect the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2011
Keyword
Shape, tracing, drawing, freehand, mouse, pen, touch, evaluation, comparison, method
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-163289 (URN)10.1145/2071536.2071588 (DOI)978-1-4503-1090-1 (ISBN)
Conference
OzCHI '11 The Annual Meeting of the Australian Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction, Canberra, Australia, November 28 - December 02, 2011
Note
© ACM, 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference (OzCHI'11). http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071536.2071588Available from: 2011-12-12 Created: 2011-12-09 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
3. The Effect of Shape Properties on Ad-hoc Shape Replication with Mouse, Pen, and Touch Input
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Shape Properties on Ad-hoc Shape Replication with Mouse, Pen, and Touch Input
2012 (English)In: MindTrek '12 Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference / [ed] Artur Lugmayr, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2012, 275-278 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper summarizes observations from four empirical studies focusing on shape replication with three input methods. The aim was to identify and assess how the components of several semirandomly generated shapes influence how accurately untrained users can replicate each of these components. We found that the pen is the least and touch the most error-prone method when used for drawing. Additionally, the distribution of errors was analyzed. The results may be used to predict which shape properties make shape replication more difficult. Additionally, the results may be used to design shapes that are easy to replicate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2012
Keyword
Mouse, stylus, pen, touch, shape, replication, tracing, drawing
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184676 (URN)10.1145/2393132.2393192 (DOI)978-1-4503-1637-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Academic MindTrek 2012 International Conference on Media of the Future, October 03-05, 2012, Tampere, Finland
Available from: 2012-11-12 Created: 2012-11-12 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
4. Easy vs. Tricky: The Shape Effect in Tracing, Selecting, and Steering With Mouse, Stylus, and Touch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Easy vs. Tricky: The Shape Effect in Tracing, Selecting, and Steering With Mouse, Stylus, and Touch
2013 (English)In: Academic MindTrek '13: Proceedings of International Conference on Making Sense of Converging Media / [ed] Artur Lugmayr, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, 99-103 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper is a work-in-progress report on an experimental comparison and evaluation of users' performance in four line-tracing tasks based on two shapes and performed with three input methods (mouse, stylus, and touch-input). The shapes' properties used in the study created the two classes of shapes: easy and hard to replicate. As expected these two classes had different impact on user's performance in each task tested (tracing, lasso selection, steering through narrow and wide tunnel). The results show that participants replicating the shapes using touch-input were the least accurate but were the fastest in comparison to the remaining input methods. The stylus was the least error-prone method and the mouse was the slowest device in drawing tasks (tracing and selection). The differences in error distances between the input methods were less pronounced in steering tasks but timing data showed that mouse was still the slowest one. While the time of replication did not differ between the two shapes tested, the differences between the errors participants made were significant for all tasks and input devices, and patterns of these differences were consistent between the shapes. These results confirm predictions from a previous study and show which shapes' properties can make their replication more difficult. The results can be used to design shapes that are easy to replicate, e.g., in surface-based gestural interaction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013
Keyword
Mouse, stylus, pen, touch, shape, tracing, drawing, steering
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212409 (URN)10.1145/2523429.2523444 (DOI)978-1-4503-1992-8 (ISBN)
Conference
the 17th International Academic MindTrek Conference, Tampere, Finland; October 01 - 04, 2013.
Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2014-04-23Bibliographically approved
5. A Hindrance or an Aid?: The Impact of User Interface on Ideation in Computer-Mediated Drawing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hindrance or an Aid?: The Impact of User Interface on Ideation in Computer-Mediated Drawing
2014 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Users’ performance in ideation during computer-mediated creative drawing can be affected by the design of a computer’s User Interface (UI). This paper presents results from a series of empirical comparative studies in which participants were presented with a creative drawing task and their ideation performance was measured in terms of the number and quality of ideas created with the use of three different input methods (mouse, stylus-, and touch-input), or two graphical UIs (GUIs). The results showed no significant differences between the different computer input methods, or between the simple and more complex GUI. However, when present in combination, these test conditions can be expected to create cumulative effects, which might explain the substantial differences observed in previous research on computerized creative drawing tasks. Quality-quantity trade-off and a new form of operational bias were observed and their effects on user satisfaction and ideation performance are discussed.

Keyword
idea generation, evaluation, comparison, creativity, TTCT, figural, drawing, quality, quantity, ideas, user interface, mouse, pen, stylus, touch
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220880 (URN)
Available from: 2014-03-22 Created: 2014-03-22 Last updated: 2014-09-30
6. Did We Miss Something? Correspondence Analysis of Usability Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Did We Miss Something? Correspondence Analysis of Usability Data
2013 (English)In: Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part IV / [ed] Paula Kotzé, Gary Marsden, Gitte Lindgaard, Janet Wesson, Marco Winckler, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 272-279 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We have applied a multivariate exploratory technique called Correspondence Analysis (CA) to create and analyze a model of the dataset of experiment results. The dataset originates from a comparative usability study of tracing with the use of mouse, pen, and touch input and contains both categorical and continuous data – i.e. results of questionnaires and task measurements. CA allowed to visually and numerically assess the main variables in the dataset and how they interact with each other. In our study, pen input had the best measured performance and was preferred by the users. Touch input was the least accurate of all input methods tested but it was preferred by users over mouse especially in the conditions lacking of visual feedback of drawing. CA helped to detect that secondary effect even though it cannot be explained by the performance results alone. The importance of the influence of user’s previous experience is also noted. We conclude that CA helped to identify all major phenomena known from previous studies but also was sensitive to minor and secondary effects, what makes it a well suited method to quickly evaluate usability data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8120
Keyword
shape, freehand, tracing, drawing, mouse, pen, stylus, touch, evaluation, comparison, error, measurement, subjective
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-207264 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-40498-6_20 (DOI)000345125400020 ()978-3-642-40497-9 (ISBN)978-3-642-40498-6 (ISBN)
Conference
14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Designing for Diversity, September 2-6, 2013, Cape Town, South Africa
Available from: 2013-09-11 Created: 2013-09-11 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved

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