uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Risk of symptomatic gallstones and cholecystectomy after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet in a commercial weight loss program: 1-year matched cohort study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, no 2, 279-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Concern exists regarding gallstones as an adverse event of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs; <800 kcal per day). OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospital care and/or cholecystectomy in a commercial weight loss program using VLCD or low-calorie diet (LCD). DESIGN: A 1-year matched cohort study of consecutively enrolled adults in a commercial weight loss program conducted at 28 Swedish centers between 2006 and 2009. A 3-month weight loss phase of VLCD (500 kcal per day) or LCD (1200-1500 kcal per day) was followed by a 9-month weight maintenance phase. Matching (1: 1) was performed by age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and gallstone history (n = 3320: 3320). Gallstone and cholecystectomy data were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: One-year weight loss was greater in the VLCD than in the LCD group (-11.1 versus -8.1 kg; adjusted difference, -2.8 kg, 95% CI -3.1 to -2.4; P<0.001). During 6361 person-years, 48 and 14 gallstones requiring hospital care occurred in the VLCD and LCD groups, respectively, (152 versus 44/10 000 person-years; hazard ratio, 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.3; P<0.001; number-needed-to-harm, 92, 95% CI 63-168; P<0.001). Of the 62 gallstone events, 38 (61%) resulted in cholecystectomy (29 versus 9; hazard ratio, 3.2, 95% CI 1.5-6.8; P = 0.003; number-needed-to-harm, 151, 95% CI 94-377; P<0.001). Adjusting for 3-month weight loss attenuated the hazard ratios, but the risk remained higher with VLCD than LCD for gallstones (2.5, 95% CI 1.3-5.1; P = 0.009) and became borderline for cholecystectomy (2.2, 95% CI 0.9-5.2; P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: The risk of symptomatic gallstones requiring hospitalization or cholecystectomy, albeit low, was 3-fold greater with VLCD than LCD during the 1-year commercial weight loss program.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2014. Vol. 38, no 2, 279-284 p.
Keyword [en]
VLCD, LCD, commercial weight loss, gallstones, cholecystectomy, adverse events
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221006DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2013.83ISI: 000331404300017OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-221006DiVA: diva2:707597
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2014-03-25Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text
By organisation
Department of Medical Sciences
In the same journal
International Journal of Obesity
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 204 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link