High Fitness Costs and Instability of Gene Duplications Reduce Rates of Evolution of New Genes by Duplication-Divergence Mechanisms
2014 (English)In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 31, no 6, 1526-1535 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
An important mechanism for generation of new genes is by duplication-divergence of existing genes. Duplication-divergence includes several different sub-models, such as subfunctionalization where after accumulation of neutral mutations the original function is distributed between two partially functional and complementary genes, and neofunctionalization where a new function evolves in one of the duplicated copies while the old function is maintained in another copy. The likelihood of these mechanisms depends on the longevity of the duplicated state, which in turn depends on the fitness cost and genetic stability of the duplications. Here, we determined the fitness cost and stability of defined gene duplications/amplifications on a low copy number plasmid. Our experimental results show that the costs of carrying extra gene copies are substantial and that each additional kbp of DNA reduces fitness by approximately 0.15%. Furthermore, gene amplifications are highly unstable and rapidly segregate to lower copy numbers in absence of selection. Mathematical modelling shows that the fitness costs and instability strongly reduces the likelihood of both sub- and neofunctionalization, but that these effects can be off-set by positive selection for novel beneficial functions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 31, no 6, 1526-1535 p.
Microbiology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Genetics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221431DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msu111ISI: 000337067400019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-221431DiVA: diva2:709071