Conjugation in Organic Group 14 Element Compounds: Design, Synthesis and Experimental Evaluation
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis focuses on the chemical concept of conjugation, i.e., electron delocalization, and the effect it has on electronic and optical properties of molecules. The emphasis is on electron delocalization across a saturated σ-bonded segment, and in our studies these segments are either inserted between π-conjugated moieties or joined together to form longer chains. The electronic and optical properties of these compounds are probed and compared to those of traditionally π-conjugated compounds. The investigations utilize a combination of qualitative chemical bonding theories, quantum chemical calculations, chemical syntheses and different spectroscopic methods.
Herein, it is revealed that a saturated σ-bonded segment inserted between two π-systems can have optical and electronic properties similar to a cross-conjugated compound when substituents with heavy Group 14 elements (Si, Ge or Sn) are attached to the central atom. We coined the terminology cross-hyperconjugation for this interaction, and have shown it by both computational and spectroscopic means. This similarity is also found in cyclic compounds, for example in the 1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes, as we reveal that there is a cyclic aspect of cross-hyperconjugation. Cross-hyperconjugation can further also be found in smaller rings such as siloles and cyclopentadienes, and we show on the similarities between these and their cross-π-conjugated analogues, the fulvenes. Here, this concept is combined with that of excited state aromaticity and the electronic properties of these systems are rationalized in terms of “aromatic chameleon” effects. We show that the optical properties of these systems can be rationally tuned and predicted through the choice of substituents and knowledge about the aromaticity rules in both ground and excited states.
We computationally examine the relation between conjugation and conductance and reveal that oligomers of 1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes and related analogues can display molecular cord properties. The conductance through several σ-conjugated silicon compounds were also examined and show that mixed silicon and carbon bicyclo[2.2.2]octane compounds do not provide significant benefits over the open-chain oligosilanes. However, cyclohexasilanes, a synthetic precursor to the bicyclic compounds, displayed conformer-dependent electronic structure variations that were not seen for cyclohexanes. This allowed for computational design of a mechanically activated conductance switch.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 70 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1140
conjugation, conductance, electronic structure, Group 14 elements, hyperconjugation, molecular electronics, organosilicon chemistry
Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry
Research subject Chemistry with specialization in Organic Chemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221683ISBN: 978-91-554-8929-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-221683DiVA: diva2:709833
2014-05-27, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Tykwinski, Rik, Professor
List of papers