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Future Technology Support of Command and Control: Assessing the impact of assumed future technologies on cooperative command and control
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6930-5596
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In response to technological advances, especially in the field of information and communication technology (ICT), the so called revolution in military affairs (RMA) and later the concept of network-centric warfare (NCW) emerged as a theory to further utilize technology for military command and control (C2). Advocates of the Swedish ROLF 2010-vision and the concept of NCW have made claims and assumptions that future technology will improve mission effectiveness by, for example, increasing the understanding of a current situation and its development, the speed of command, and providing means to utilize more efficient forms of organizations. The scope of this thesis is to critically dissect and assess some of these claims and assumptions.

Four papers are included: (1) An observational study involving military officers participating in a training session at the Swedish National Defence College’s command and control laboratory. (2) A study performed with a microworld is presented with a discussion considering using microworlds as a tool for investigating the effects of introducing characteristics of novel tech- nology. (3) An experimental study introducing a method to measure individual’s apprehension and assessed development of a situation. (4) Finally, an experiment is presented addressing assumptions of the efficiency of different C2 architectures and effects of graphical support for communication of intentions.

The overall conclusion is that the strong benefits from implementing new technologies can be questioned. Results from the qualitative observations indicate that traditional working practices are used regardless introduction of technology with future characteristics. The results show that the strong positive effect that networked and technology enhanced C2 architecture was expected to have generally could not be demonstrated experimentally. However, it appeared that such a C2 architecture can provide some advantages of C2 performance over traditional counterparts under conditions of moderate complexity. Under situations of high complexity, neither the networked nor the traditional C2 architecture performed better than the control condition who lacked C2 capabilities.

Abstract [sv]

Som svar på tekniska framsteg, särskilt inom fältet information och kommunikationsteknologi (IKT), uppstod den så kallade revolutionen i militära angelägenheter (RMA) och senare konceptet nätverksbaserad krigföring (NCW). Det senare har efterhand utvecklats till en teori om hur teknik kan utnyttjas för att effektivisera militär ledning. Bland förespråkare för nätverksbaserad krigföring har antaganden gjorts om hur genomförandet av framtida uppdrag kommer att kunna förbättras och effektiviseras med stöd av framtida teknik. Till exempel antas framtida teknologier kunna; öka förståelsen för en rådande situation och dess fortsatta utveckling, medge att tempot i vilket ledningen bedrivs kommer att kunna ökas samt medge att nya och mer effektiva organisationsformer kommer att kunna utnyttjas. Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att kritiskt analysera och bedöma några av de antaganden som gjorts inom ramen för den svenska ROLF 2010-visionen samt konceptet för nätverksbaserad krigföring.

I avhandlingen ingår fyra artiklar. (1) En observationsstudie av en militär stabsövning genomförd i Försvarshögskolans ledningslaboratorium. (2) Resultatet från en studie där en mikrovärld använts som ett verktyg för att undersöka effekterna på ledning där egenskaper hos ny teknik införs. (3) En experimentell studie där en metod introduceras för att mäta olika individers förmåga att uppfatta och bedöma en situation och dess troliga utveckling. (4) Slutligen presenteras ett experiment som syftar till att utvärdera antaganden om olika ledningsarkitekturer och deras effektivitet samt effekter av grafiskt stöd för kommunikation.

Den allmänna slutsatsen är att de antaganden som görs där starka fördelar skall kunna uppnås genom implementering av ny teknik kan ifrågasättas. Resultat från de kvalitativa observationerna indikerar att traditionella arbetsmetoder används trots att teknik med nya egenskaper har införts. Resultaten visar att de starka positiva effekter som nätverksbaserad och teknikstödd ledningsarkitektur förväntades ha generellt inte kunde påvisas experimentellt. Emellertid visade det sig att en sådan ledningsarkitektur kan ge vissa lednings- och prestandafördelar jämfört med traditionella motsvarigheter i situationer med måttligt förhöjd komplexitet. I situationer med kraftigt höjd komplexitet visade det sig att vare sig den nya eller den traditionella ledningsarkitekturen var effektivare än kontrollbetingelsen som saknade ledning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2014. , 109 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 96
Keyword [en]
command, control, cooperative, collaboration, decision-making, effectiveness, human-computer interaction, microworld, network-centric, military, team
Keyword [sv]
beslutsfattande, effektivitet, ledning, mikrovärld, militär, människa-datorinteraktion, nätverkscentrerad, samarbete, team
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221786ISBN: 978-91-554-8936-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-221786DiVA: diva2:710662
Public defence
2014-05-26, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-04-29 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2014-06-30
List of papers
1.
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2. C3Fire in command and control research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>C3Fire in command and control research
2003 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 5, no 3, 191-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

New and envisioned technological means and abilities for exerting command and control have increased the interest of man-machine research in a military context. Although there are many current proposals for how new command and control systems should be designed, many of the proposed properties that are considered advantageous have never been tested or could even be impossible to test in real-world situations. In spite of that, proposed design solutions are generally held valid in many Western countries where developments of major command and control system projects are in progress. An important question is how microworlds can be used for research on team decision-making. The use of microworlds gives us the possibility to create controlled settings and the opportunity to use advanced monitoring tools to study the subjects. Our studies indicate that the microworld concept, even though the simulation is fairly simple, reflects some of the crucial aspects of team-work in dynamic settings. The article presents results from a study in command and control using the C3Fire microworld (http:// www.c3fire.org). Results and methodological issues are discussed.

Keyword
Microworld; Dynamic decision making; Command and control; Simulation; Team decision making
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction; Computer Science with specialization in Real Time Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221782 (URN)10.1007/s10111-003-0127-x (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. A measure of situation apprehension, outcome prediction and performance in one microworld
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A measure of situation apprehension, outcome prediction and performance in one microworld
2007 (English)In: Proc. of the 10th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems (IFAC-HMS 2007), Korea: Elsevier, 2007, Vol. 58Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this article a measurement method of situation apprehension and outcome prediction is examined psychometrically. This method has its inspiration in Spearman’s theory of intelligence and constitutes an alternative to the concepts of situation awareness and sense making. The measurement approach of certain aspects of understanding that is examined here is specific to the decision making environment (microworld) used, but its general properties, however, should be rather widely applicable. Using one microworld – C3Fire – and an assessment technique of situation apprehension and prediction ability, we studied the rela- tionships between apprehension, prediction, and performance in the microworld. These results indicate that the measurement method used may be psychometrically sound and thus a viable alternative to current approaches to understanding, such as situation awareness and sense making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Korea: Elsevier, 2007
Keyword
Assessment, Awareness, Command and control, Communication, Decision making, Measurement, Methodology, Prediction, Signal detection
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Human-Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221784 (URN)
Conference
The 10th IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems (IFAC-HMS 2007), 4-6 September 2007, Seoul, South Korea.
Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2014-06-30Bibliographically approved
4. Complexity: the dark side of network-centric warfare
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complexity: the dark side of network-centric warfare
2014 (English)In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, no 1, 103-115 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Military theoretical considerations suggest that a networked command and control architecture will provide a more effective form of command and control under complex operations that demand a high tempo of action. This article presents an experimental study with the purpose to examine team performance under different conditions of command and control architectures and their resilience to complexity. The experiment was performed with the task to extinguish simulated fires in a microworld. Three factors were varied in the experiment: command and control architecture, the number of simulated units, and tempo. The dependent variable was the number of lost cells in the microworld. Three command and control architectures were investigated; command by negation, directive command, and a control condition. The general conclusion from this experiment was that all command and control architectures performed equally poorly under the condition of many subordinate units and fast tempo. This was in contradiction to suggestions made in the military theoretical literature. Command by negation was presumably the more effective command and control architecture under the other conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Springer, 2014
Keyword
Architecture, Command, Complexity, Control, C3Fire, Experimental study, Graphical decision support, Microworld, Network centric, Team performance
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT
Research subject
Computer Systems Sciences; Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221717 (URN)10.1007/s10111-012-0248-1 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved

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