Fast-Neutron Tomography using a Mobile Neutron Generator for Assessment of Steam-Water Distributions in Two-Phase Flows
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
This thesis describes the measurement technique of fast-neutron tomography for assessing spatial distributions of steam and water in two-phase flows. This so-called void distribution is of importance both for safe operation and for efficient use of the fuel in light water reactors, which compose the majority of the world’s commercial nuclear reactors. The technique is aimed for usage at thermal-hydraulic test loops, where heated two-phase flows are being investigated under reactor-relevant conditions.
By deploying portable neutron generators in transmission tomography, the technique becomes applicable to stationary objects, such as thermal-hydraulic test loops. Fast neutrons have the advantage of high transmission through metallic structures while simultaneously being relatively sensitive to the water/void content. However, there are also challenges, such as the relatively low yield of commercially available fast-neutron generators, the tendency of fast neutrons to scatter in the interactions with materials and the relatively low efficiency encountered in fast-neutron detection.
The thesis describes the design of a prototype instrument, FANTOM, which has been assembled and demonstrated. The main design parameters have been optimized to achieve maximal signal count rate in the detector elements, while simultaneously reaching an image unsharpness of ≤0.5 mm. Radiographic projections recorded with the assembled instrument are presented, and the performance parameters of FANTOM are deduced.
Furthermore, tomographic reconstruction methods for axially symmetric objects, which is relevant for some test loops, have been developed and demonstrated on measured data from three test objects. The attenuation distribution was reconstructed with a radial resolution of 0.5 mm and an RMS error of 0.02 cm-1, based on data recorded using an effective measurement time of 3.5 hours per object. For a thermal-hydraulic test loop, this can give a useful indication of the flow mode, but further development is desired to improve the precision of the measurements.
Instrument upgrades are foreseen by introducing a more powerful neutron generator and by adding detector elements, speeding up the data collection by several orders of magnitude and allowing for higher precision data. The requirements and performance of an instrument for assessment of arbitrary non-symmetric test loops is discussed, based on simulations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 70 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1146
Void distribution, neutron tomography, plastic scintillator, transmission measurements, neutron detection
Research subject Applied Nuclear Physics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-222459ISBN: 978-91-554-8947-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-222459DiVA: diva2:711662
2014-06-04, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Jacobsson Svärd, StaffanSjöstrand, HenrikPomp, StephanHåkansson, AneÖsterlund, Michael
List of papers