Resilience and Opportunistic Forwarding: Beyond Average Value Analysis
2013 (English)In: CHANTS '13 Proceedings of the 8th ACM MobiCom workshop on Challenged networks, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
Opportunistic networks are systems with highly distributed operation, relying on the altruistic cooperation of heterogeneous, and not always software- and hardware-compatible user nodes. Moreover, the absence of central control makes them vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper, we take a fresh look at the resilience of opportunistic forwarding to these challenges. In particular, we introduce and promote the use of metric envelopes as a resilience assessment tool. Metric envelopes depart from the standard practice of average value analysis and explicitly account for the differentiated impact that a challenge may have on the forwarding performance due to node heterogeneity (device capabilities, mobility) and attackers’ intelligence. The use of metric envelopes is demonstrated in the case of three challenges: jamming, hardware/software failures and incompatibilities, and free-riding phenomena. For each challenge, we first devise heuristics to generate worst- and best-case realization scenarios that can approximate the metric envelopes. Then we derive the envelopes of common performance metrics for three popular forwarding protocols under a comprehensive range of mobility patterns. The metric envelope approach enables more informed choices in opportunistic forwarding whenever network resilience considerations become important.
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IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-222818OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-222818DiVA: diva2:712337