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Resilience and Opportunistic Forwarding: Beyond Average Value Analysis
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. (Communication Research)
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2014 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 48, no SI, 111-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Opportunistic networks are systems with highly distributed operation, relying on the altruistic cooperation of highly heterogeneous, and not always software and hardware-compatible, user nodes. Moreover, the absence of central coordination and control makes them vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper, we study the resilience of popular forwarding protocols to a representative set of challenges to their normal operation. These include jamming locally disturbing message transfer between nodes, hardware/software failures and incompatibility among nodes rendering contact opportunities useless, and free-riding phenomena. We first formulate and promote the metric envelope concept as a tool for assessing the resilience of opportunistic forwarding schemes. Metric envelopes depart from the standard practice of average value analysis and explicitly account for the differentiated challenge impact due to node heterogeneity (device capabilities, mobility) and attackers’ intelligence. We then propose heuristics to generate worst- and best-case challenge realization scenarios and approximate the lower and upper bounds of the metric envelopes. Finally, we demonstrate the methodology in assessing the resilience of three popular forwarding protocols in the presence of the three challenges, and under a comprehensive range of mobility patterns. The metric envelope approach provides better insights into the level of protection path diversity and message replication provide against different challenges, and enables more informed choices in opportunistic forwarding when network resilience becomes important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 48, no SI, 111-120 p.
National Category
Communication Systems
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-222822DOI: 10.1016/j.comcom.2014.04.004ISI: 000337883200010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-222822DiVA: diva2:712989
ResumeNet, WISENET
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-224619

Special Issue

Available from: 2014-04-17 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2014-07-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Opportunistic Networking: Congestion, Transfer Ordering and Resilience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunistic Networking: Congestion, Transfer Ordering and Resilience
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Opportunistic networks are constructed by devices carried by people and vehicles. The devices use short range radio to communicate. Since the network is mobile and often sparse in terms of node contacts, nodes store messages in their buffers, carrying them, and forwarding them upon node encounters. This form of communication leads to a set of challenging issues that we investigate: congestion, transfer ordering, and resilience.

Congestion occurs in opportunistic networks when a node's buffers becomes full. To be able to receive new messages, old messages have to be evicted. We show that buffer eviction strategies based on replication statistics perform better than strategies that evict messages based on the content of the message.

We show that transfer ordering has a significant impact on the dissemination of messages during time limited contacts. We find that transfer strategies satisfying global requests yield a higher delivery ratio but a longer delay for the most requested data compared to satisfying the neighboring node's requests.

Finally, we assess the resilience of opportunistic networks by simulating different types of attacks. Instead of enumerating all possible attack combinations, which would lead to exhaustive evaluations, we introduce a method that use heuristics to approximate the extreme outcomes an attack can have. The method yields a lower and upper bound for the evaluated metric over the different realizations of the attack. We show that some types of attacks are harder to predict the outcome of and other attacks may vary in the impact of the attack due to the properties of the attack, the forwarding protocol, and the mobility pattern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 45 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1148
Opportunistic Networking, Congestion, Transfer Ordering, Resilience, Testbed, WISENET
National Category
Computer Science Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science with specialization in Computer Communication
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-223492 (URN)978-91-554-8953-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-06-09, Room 2446, Polacksbacken, Lägerhyddsvägen 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2014-05-15 Created: 2014-04-22 Last updated: 2014-07-21Bibliographically approved

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