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Overfeeding Polyunsaturated and Saturated Fat Causes Distinct Effects on Liver and Visceral Fat Accumulation in Humans
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
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2014 (English)In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 7, 2356-2368 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated (SFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat. LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFA (palm oil) or n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous abdominal (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT), pancreatic fat, and lean tissue was assessed by MRI. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFA however markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFA and caused 2-fold larger increase in VAT than PUFA. Conversely, PUFA caused a nearly 3-fold larger increase in lean tissue than SFA. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFA and inversely with PUFA. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition and fat cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFA in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFA promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage whereas excess energy from PUFA may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 63, no 7, 2356-2368 p.
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-223915DOI: 10.2337/db13-1622ISI: 000337918200025PubMedID: 24550191OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-223915DiVA: diva2:714441
Available from: 2014-04-28 Created: 2014-04-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Fatty Acids, Body Composition and Ectopic Fat : Results from Overfeeding Studies in Humans
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Fatty Acids, Body Composition and Ectopic Fat : Results from Overfeeding Studies in Humans
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on body composition and ectopic fat in humans, with emphasis on the role of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and the saturated fatty acid (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0). The overall hypothesis was that linoleic acid would be beneficial compared with palmitic acid during overfeeding, as previously indicated in animals.

Papers I, II and IV were double-blinded, randomized interventions in which different dietary fats were provided to participants and Paper III was a cross-sectional study in a community-based cohort (PIVUS) in which serum fatty acid composition was assessed as a biomarker of dietary fat intake.

In Paper I, overfeeding with sunflower oil (n-6 PUFA) for 7 weeks caused less accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat (as assessed by MRI) compared with palm oil (SFA) in young and lean subjects despite similar weight gain among groups. Instead, sunflower oil caused a larger accumulation of lean tissue.

In Paper II, plasma from Paper I was analyzed with NMR-based metabolomics, aiming to identify metabolites differentially affected by the two dietary treatments. Acetate decreased by PUFA and increased by SFA whereas lactate increased by PUFA and decreased by SFA.

In Paper III, the proportion of linoleic acid in serum was inversely associated with contents of visceral-, subcutaneous- and total body adipose tissue whereas the proportion of palmitic acid was directly associated with visceral- and total body adipose tissue in 70-year old men and women.

In Paper IV, overfeeding with sunflower oil for 8 weeks caused less accumulation of liver fat compared with palm oil also in overweight and obese subjects. SFA increased visceral fat in men only. Accumulation of lean tissue was similar between groups.

In conclusion, SFA (palmitic acid) from palm oil promotes marked liver fat accumulation in both normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects during overeating, whereas n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) from sunflower oil prevents such liver fat accumulation. Diverging effects of SFA and PUFA on visceral adipose tissue and lean tissue may only be applicable in some groups and/or circumstances. These results imply that negative effects associated with weight gain (e.g. fatty liver) may be partly counteracted by the type fat in the diet, overall supporting a beneficial role of diets higher in unsaturated fat compared with saturated fat for preventing liver fat accumulation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. 94 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1358
Keyword
Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, SFA, PUFA, Fatty acids, Body composition, Liver fat, Ectopic fat, Adipose tissue
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280949 (URN)978-91-554-9523-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-13, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
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Available from: 2016-04-22 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2016-04-29

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Rosqvist, FredrikIggman, DavidKullberg, JoelCedernaes, JonathanLarsson, AndersJohansson, LarsAhlström, HåkanRisérus, Ulf

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