Genetic Aspects of Endocrine Tumorigenesis: A Hunt for the Endocrine Neoplasia Gene
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Endocrine tumors arise from endocrine glands. Most endocrine tumors are benign but malignant variants exist. Several endocrine neoplasms display loss of parts of chromosome 11 or 18, produce hormones and responds poorly to conventional chemotherapeutics. The multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are mainly confined to endocrine tumors. This opens the question if there exists a single or several endocrine tumor genes.
The aim of the study was to describe genetic derangements in endocrine tumors.
Paper I: Investigation of mutational status of SDHAF2 in parathyroid tumors. SDHAF2 is located in the proximity of 11q13, a region that frequently displays loss in parathyroid tumors. We established that mutations in SDHAF2 are infrequent in parathyroid tumors.
Paper II: Study of SDHAF2 gene expression in a cohort of benign pheochromocytomas (PCC) (n=40) and malignant PCC (n=10). We discovered a subset of benign PCC (28/40) and all malignant PCC (10/10) with significantly lower SDHAF2 expression. Benign PCC with low SDHAF2 expression and malignant tumors consistently expressing low levels of SDHAF2 were methylated in the promoter region. SDHAF2 expression was restored in vitro after treatment with 5- aza-2-deoxycytidine.
Paper III: HumanMethylation27 array (Illumina) covering 27578 CpG sites spanning over 14495 genes were analyzed in a discovery cohort of 10 primary small neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) with matched metastases. 2697 genes showed different methylation pattern between the primary tumor and its metastasis. We identified several hypermethylated genes in key regions. Unsupervised clustering of the tumors identified three distinct clusters, one with a highly malignant behavior.
Paper IV: Loss of chromosome 18 is the most frequent genetic aberration in SI-NETs. DNA from SI-NETs were subjected to whole exome capture sequencing and high resolution SNP array. Genomic profiling revealed loss of chromosome 18 in 5 out of 7 SI-NETs. No tumor-specific somatic mutation on chromosome 18 was identified which suggests involvement of other mechanisms than point mutations in SI-NET tumorigenesis.
Paper V: The cost for diagnostic genetic screening of common susceptibility genes in PCC is expensive and labor intensive. Three PCC from three patients with no known family history were chosen for exome capture sequencing. We identified three variants in known candidate genes. We suggest that exome-capture sequencing is a quick and cost-effective tool.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. , 65 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1010
Exome sequencing, SDHAF2, epigenetics, methylation, methylation array, Sanger sequencing, pheochromocytoma, SI-NETs, carcinoid, oncology, endocrine surgery, parathyroid
Surgery Medical Genetics
Research subject Genetics; Surgery
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224111ISBN: 978-91-554-8973-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-224111DiVA: diva2:715344
2014-08-29, Grönwallsalen, Ing. 70, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Farnebo, Filip, Professor, adj
Björklund, Peyman, Researcherwestin, gunnar, professorHellman, Per, Professor
List of papers