uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Traumatic brain injury and young onset dementia: a nationwide cohort study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
2014 (English)In: Annals of Neurology, ISSN 0364-5134, E-ISSN 1531-8249, Vol. 75, no 3, 374-381 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


To investigate the association between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and the risk of young onset dementia (YOD), that is, dementia before 65 years of age.


The study cohort comprised 811,622 Swedish men (mean age = 18 years) conscripted for military service between 1969 and 1986. TBIs, dementia, and covariates were extracted from national registers. Time-dependent exposures using Cox proportional hazard regression models were evaluated.


During a median follow-up period of 33 years, there were 45,249 men with at least 1 TBI in the cohort. After adjustment for covariates, 1 mild TBI (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-2.0), at least 2 mild TBIs (HR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8-8.1), or 1 severe TBI (HR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.1-5.2) were not associated with Alzheimer dementia (AD). Other types of dementia were strongly associated with the risk of 1 mild TBI (HR = 3.8, 95% CI = 2.8-5.2), at least 2 mild TBIs (HR = 10.4, 95% CI = 6.3-17.2), and 1 severe TBI (HR = 11.4, 95% CI = 7.4-17.5) in age-adjusted analysis. However, these associations were largely attenuated after adjustment for covariates (1 mild TBI: HR = 1.7; at least 2 mild TBIs: HR = 1.7; 1 severe TBI: HR = 2.6; p < 0.05 for all).


In the present study, we found strong associations between YOD of non-AD forms and TBIs of different severity. These associations were, however, markedly attenuated after multivariate adjustment. Ann Neurol 2014;75:374-381

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 75, no 3, 374-381 p.
National Category
Clinical Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224474DOI: 10.1002/ana.24101ISI: 000333547000008OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-224474DiVA: diva2:717404
Available from: 2014-05-15 Created: 2014-05-13 Last updated: 2014-10-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Michaëlsson, Karl
By organisation
In the same journal
Annals of Neurology
Clinical Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 248 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link