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1090 nm infrared radiation at close to threshold dose induces cataract with a time delay
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology. (Gullstrand lab/ Leader Per Söderberg)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0654-5856
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
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2015 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 93, no 2, e118-e122 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To investigate if infrared radiation induced cataract is instant or is associatedwith a time delay between the exposure and the onset of lens light scattering after anexposure to just above threshold dose.

Methods

Six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats were unilaterally exposedto 197 W/cm2 infrared radiation at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil. In the firstexperiment, the animals were exposed with four exposure times of 5, 8, 13 and 20 s,respectively. At 24 h after exposure, the light scattering in both exposed andcontralateral not exposed lenses was measured. Based on the first experiment, fourpost exposure time groups were exposed unilaterally to 1090 nm infrared radiation of197 W/cm2 for 8 s. At 6, 18, 55 and 168 h after exposure, the light scattering in bothlenses was measured.

Results

A 197 W/cm2 infrared radiation induced light scattering in the lens withexposures of at least 8 s. Further, after exposure to infrared radiation of 197 W/cm2for 8 s, the light scattering increase in the lens was delayed approximately 16 h afterthe exposure.

Conclusion

There is a time delay between the exposure and the onset of cataract afterexposure to close to threshold dose implicating that either near infrared radiationcataract is photochemical or there is a time delay in the biological expression ofthermally induced damage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 93, no 2, e118-e122 p.
Keyword [en]
infrared radiation, forward light scattering, lens, photochemical, thermal
National Category
Basic Medicine Ophthalmology
Research subject
Ophtalmology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-226530DOI: 10.1111/aos.12508ISI: 000349900200005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-226530DiVA: diva2:726286
Available from: 2014-06-18 Created: 2014-06-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Damage mechanisms for near-infrared radiation induced cataract
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage mechanisms for near-infrared radiation induced cataract
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: 1) To estimate the threshold dose and the time evolution for cataract induction by near infrared radiation (IRR) in seconds exposure time domain; 2) to determine the ocular temperature development during the threshold exposure; 3) to investigate if near IRR induces cumulative lens damage considering irradiance exposure time reciprocity; 4) to experimentally estimate the temperature in the lens indirectly from the measurement of temperature-induced light scattering increase.

Methods: Before exposure, 6-weeks-old albino rats were anesthetized and the pupils of both eyes were dilated. Then the animals were unilaterally exposed to 1090 nm IRR within the pupil area. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples placed in the selected positions of the eye. At the planned post-exposure time, the animal was sacrificed and the lenses were extracted for measurements of forward light scattering and macroscopic imaging (Paper I-III). In Paper IV, the lens was extracted from six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats and put into a temperature-controlled cuvette filled with balanced salt solution. Altogether, 80 lenses were equally divided on four temperature groups, 37, 40, 43 and 46 ºC. Each lens was exposed for 5 minutes to temperature depending on group belonging while the intensity of forward light scattering was recorded.

Results: The in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR required a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. There was approximately 16 h delay between exposure and light scattering development in the lens. The same radiant exposure was found to cause a temperature increase of 10 °C at the limbus and 26 °C close to the retina. The in vivo exposure to 96 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR with exposure time up to 1 h resulted in an average temperature elevation of 7 °C at the limbus with the cornea humidified and no significant light scattering was induced one week after exposure. Arrhenius equation implies that the natural logarithm of the inclination coefficient for light scattering increase is linearly dependent on the inverse of the temperature. The proportionality constant and the intercept, estimated as CI(0.95)s, were 9.6±2.4 x103 K and 22.8±7.7. Further, it implies that if averaging 20 measurements of inclination coefficients in a new experiment at constant heat load, the confidence limits for prediction of temperature correspond to ±1.9 °C.

Conclusions: It is indicated that IRR at 1090 nm produces thermal but not cumulatively photochemical cataract, probably by indirect heat conduction from absorption in tissues surrounding the lens. Applying the Arrhenius equation the in vivo temperature in the lens can be determined retrospectively with sufficient resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. 24 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1284
Keyword
infrared radiation, photochemical, thermal, forward light scattering, lens, cataract, temperature, Arrhenius equation, heat diffusion
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308835 (URN)9789155497736 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-20, Enghoffsalen, Entrance 50, 1st floor, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-23 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2018-01-13

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Yu, ZhaohuaTalebizadeh, NooshinKronschläger, MartinSöderberg, Per G

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