Mechanisms for foldingof mid- to lower-crustal rocks in extensional tectonic settings
2002 (English)In: Earth-Science Review, Vol. 59, 163-210 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
This review of structures developed in extensional high-grade terrains, combined with results of centrifuge analogue modelling, illustrates the range of fold styles and mechanisms for folding of amphibolite to granulite facies rocks during rifting or the collapse of a thrust-thickened orogen. Several extensional fold mechanisms (such as folding within detachment shear zones) are similar to those in contractional settings. The metamorphic P–T–t path, and not fold style or mode of formation, is therefore required to determine the tectonic setting in which some folds developed. Other mechanisms such as rollover above and folding between listric normal shear zones, and folding due to isostatic adjustments during crustal thinning, are unique to extensional tectonic settings. Several mechanisms for folding during crustal extension produce structures that could easily be misinterpreted as implying regional contraction and hence lead to errors in their tectonic interpretation. It is shown that isoclinal recumbent folds refolded by open, upright folds may develop during regional extension in the deep crust. Folds with a thrust sense of asymmetry can develop due to high shear strains within an extensional detachment, or from enhanced back-rotation of layers between normal shear zones. During back-rotation folding, layers rotated into the shortening field undergo further buckle folding, and all may rotate towards orthogonality to the maximum shortening direction. This mechanism explains the presence of many transposed folds, folds with axial planar pegmatites and folds with opposite vergence in extensional terrains. Examples of folds in high-grade rocks interpreted as foring during regional extension included in this paper are from the Grenville Province of Canada, Norwegian Caledonides, Albany Mobile Belt and Leeuwin Complex of Western Australia, Ruby Mountains in the Basin and Range Province of Nevada, the Ataˆ Sund area of Greenland, the Napier Complex of Enderby Land in East Antarctica and the Kigluaik Mountains in western Alaska.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 59, 163-210 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-45109OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-45109DiVA: diva2:73016